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Why isn’t rotation of atoms possible around a pi bond?

Why isn’t rotation of atoms possible around a pi bond?

Grade:11

1 Answers

Aarti Gupta
askIITians Faculty 300 Points
6 years ago
Pi bond: -This type of covalent bond results by the lateral or sidewise overlap of the atomic orbitals and the overlapping of orbital takes place in such a way that their axes are parallel to each other but perpendicular to the internuclear axis.A pi bond between two atoms is formed only in addition to a sigma bond and this is because the atoms constituting a single bond prefer to form a sigma bond as it is a stronger bond rather than a pi bond which is a weak bond.Therefore,a pi bond is always present in molecules with multiple bonds like double or triple bonds.For ex- alkenes and alkynes.
Free rotation of atoms can be possible around the sigma bonds,but such rotation is not possible in case of pi bond because it involves breaking the pi bonds.Pi bond means that rotation of one end of the double bond relative to the otherwhich requires so much energy that it does not happen at ordinary temperatures.This is because such rotation would destroy the "side to side" overlap of the p orbitals which make up the pi bond and would effectively break the pi bond.Breaking bonds requires energy input.So rotation of atoms isn’t possible around the pi-bond as such rotation would lead to breaking of bond.

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