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Why is a 3 degree carbocation more stable than a 2 or 1 degree carbocation? And why is a 1 degree carbanion more stable than a 2 or 3 degree carbanion?

Why is a 3 degree carbocation more stable than a 2 or 1 degree carbocation? 
 And why is a 1 degree carbanion more stable than a 2 or 3 degree carbanion?

Grade:11

3 Answers

Gaurav
askIITians Faculty 164 Points
6 years ago
Hello Student
3 degree carbocation more stable than a 2 or 1 degree carbocation due to the fact that in case of 3 degree carbocation there are three methyl group which increase the stability of carbocation due to its electron donating nature. In care of two degree carbocation there are two methyl groups while in case of primary carbocation there is only one methyl group.

But in case of anions the effect is inverse because the electron donating nature of methyl group decreases the stability of anion.
Kushagra Madhukar
askIITians Faculty 629 Points
one year ago
Dear student,
Please find the answer to your question.
 
3 degree carbocation more stable than a 2 or 1 degree carbocation due to the fact that in case of 3 degree carbocation there are three methyl group which increase the stability of carbocation due to its electron donating nature. In care of two degree carbocation there are two methyl groups while in case of primary carbocation there is only one methyl group.
 
But in case of anions the effect is inverse because the electron donating nature of methyl group decreases the stability of anion.
 
Thanks and regards,
Kushagra
Srinivasan S
27 Points
one year ago
Any charged species, carbocation or carbanion, can be stable to the extent in which the charge is delocalized over full molecule.
 
For a carbocation, the delocalization occurs due to both +I effect of alkyl groups as also hyperconjugation, which is higher in order tert > sec > primary. so the order of stabiity is also same, tert > sec > primary carbocation.
 
In a carbanion, with added alkyl groups attached to the charged C, which are all +I donating, there is increased concentration of charge & no delocalization. This makes stability of tert

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