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why do amides undergo hydrolysis faster in alkali than in acidic medium?

why do amides undergo hydrolysis faster in alkali than in acidic medium?

Grade:12

1 Answers

Aarti Gupta
askIITians Faculty 300 Points
6 years ago
Hydrolysis of amides can be carried out both in acidic as well as basic medium.The products formed depend on the medium.
It is observed that when amides are hydrolysed with water alone, the process is extremely slow.During this process acid and ammonia are formed
C6H5CONH2 + H2O -----------> C6H5COOH + NH3
In order to hastened the process either the caustic alkali or mineral acids are added.When caustic alkali is added,the alkali salt of acid is formed and ammonia is liberated but in case of mineral acid,organic acid is is liberated and ammonia is neutralised.However addition of caustic alkali causes more rapid hydrolysis and their use is more preferred.Since in case of alkali addition,liberation of ammonia takes place which can be easily detect by its smell and it turns red litmus blue,their use is more preffered.Ammonia being gas gets liberated fast and thus brings faster hydrolysis of amides.

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