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Grade: 11

                        

What is premutit`s process of softening of hard water?

2 years ago

Answers : (1)

Arun
24742 Points
							
Dear student

This is a modern method employed for the softening of hard water. hydrated sodium aluminium silicate (Na2Al2Si2O8.xH2O) is called permutit. These complex salts are also known as zeolites.

The process of softening of water is carried in a tall cylindrical vesse packed with coarse sand (or gravel) and permuitit. Hard water is introduced through an inlet. It first reaches the bottom of the vessel. As it rises up, the suspended inpurities are removed by gravel. It then comes in contact with permuitit which exchanges Ca2+ and Mg2+ ions present in tank water with Na+ ions.The water that rises through permuitit layer is free from Ca2+ and Mg2+ ions and is therefore, soft.It can be taken out from outlet.

   Na2Z          +        Ca+2          ——   CaZ  + 2Na+

  Sodium zeolite  (From hard water)           Cal. Zeolite

   Na2Z  +  Mg+2  ——  MgZ  + 2Na+

   Sodium zeolite  (From hard water)  Mag. Zeolite

   where Z = Al2Si2O8.xH2O

Regeneration of Permuitit: After sometime, the entire Na2Z gets converted into CaZ

and MgZ. Then the permuitit will n o longer function. In order to regenerate Na2Z, the entry of hard water is stopped and in its place a 10% NaCl solution is introduced when Ca2+ and Mg2+ ions are exchanged by Naions and permuitit gets regenerated. The Ca2+ and Mg2+ ions are washed away by water and permuitit, thus regenerated and can be used again for softening of hard water

 

Regards

Arun (AskIITians Forum Expert)

2 years ago
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