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WHAT ARE THE BASIC CONCEPTS IN NOMENCLATURE OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS?

WHAT ARE THE BASIC CONCEPTS IN NOMENCLATURE OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS?

Grade:12

1 Answers

Harishwar IIT Roorkee
askIITians Faculty 50 Points
6 years ago
1. Compositional nomenclature

This term is used in the present recommendations to denote name constructions which are based solely on the composition of the substances or species being named, as opposed to systems involving structural information.
One such construction is that of a generalized stoichiometric name. The names of components which may themselves be elements or composite entities (such as polyatomic ions) are listed with multiplicative prefixes giving the overall stoichiometry of the compound.
If there are two or more components, they are formally divided into two classes, the electropositive and the electronegative components.
In this aspect, the names are like traditional salt names although there is no implication about the chemical nature of the species being named.
The ordered rules are then required to specify the ordering of components, the use of multiplicative prefixes, and the proper endings for the names of the electronegative components.Examples
1. Trioxygen, O3
2. Sodium chloride, NaCl
3. Phosphorus trichloride, PCl3

2. Substitutive nomenclature

Substitutive nomenclature is used widely for organic compounds and is based on the concept of a parent hydride modified by substitution of hydrogen atoms by atoms and /or groups.
Many of the cases used for naming organic ligands in the nomenclature of coordination and organometallic compounds, even though this is an overall additive system.
It is also used for naming compounds formally derived from the hydrides of certain elements in groups 13–17 of the periodic table.
Like carbon, these elements form chains and rings which can have many derivatives, and the system avoids the necessity for specifying the location of the hydrogen atoms of the parent hydride.
Rules are required to name main or parent compounds and substituents, to provide an order of citation of substituent names, and to specify the positions of attachment of substituents.Examples
1. 1, 1-difluorotrisilane, SiH3SiH2SiHF2
2. Trichlorophosphane, PCl3

3. Additive nomenclature

Additive nomenclature explains a compound or species as a combination of a central atom or central atoms with associated ligands.
The particular additive system used for coordination compounds is sometimes known as coordination nomenclature although it may be used for much wider classes of compounds, as demonstrated for inorganic acids and organometallic compounds and for a large number of simple molecules and ions.
Another additive system is well suited for naming chains and rings.
Examples
1. PCl3, trichloridophosphorus
2. [CoCl3 (NH3)3], triamminetrichloridocobalt
Nomenclature Organic ChemistryBack to Top
The naming of organic chemistry is an important aspect in the study of organic chemistry as there number is very large and variety of molecular structures exists in their molecules. The field has become more complex on account of the phenomenon of isomerism.

There are two main systems of nomenclature of organic compounds
Trivial system
IUPAC system

Trivial System of Nomenclature in Organic ChemistryBack to Top
Trivial name is a non systematic name or vernacular name of an organic compound. There is no specific rules about the trivial name of the compound.

Features of Trivial system
The name of the compound will be simple like phenol, acetic acid, toluene etc. For example the following carboxylic acid is named as tartaric acid which is commonly found in tamarinds.
[Carboxylic Acid]
But in IUPAC system it is called as 2,3-dihydroxy-1,4-Butanedioic acid. The name is derived from root Latin or Greek words in some cases. For example in the name of formic acid, formica means distillation of ant bodies. This acid is found in venom of ant and bee stings. Hence it got the trivial name.

Drawbacks of the Trivial system
There are many trivial names for a single compound. For example phenol with formula C6H6O is called as phenol, hydroxy benzene, carbolic acid etc.
This type of nomenclature is restricted for few compounds in each family. For example in carboxylic acid family the first two members with formula HCOOH, CH3COOH have trivial name as formic acid and acetic acid. But there is no specific trivial name for a carboxylic acid with six carbon atoms.
Similarly there is no specific guidelines for complex substituted compounds in organic chemistry.

IUPAC RulesBack to Top
In IUPAC organic nomenclature or iupac nomenclature rules each organic compound is named as a derivative of parent hydrocarbon by prefixing/suffixing the substituents along with the locants.
So the IUPAC nomenclature involves the following steps.
Identification and naming of parent hydrocarbon.
Numbering the chain and identifying the substituents.
Classify the substituents as prefix/suffix. Some of the substituents like carboxylic acid (-COOH) will always be used as suffix only while some of the substituents like hydroxy (-OH) will be used as both prefix and suffix in according to the priority.
Identifying the locants of the substituents.

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