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what are free radicals give suitable example?

what are free radicals give suitable example?


1 Answers

ruchi yadav
askIITians Faculty 27 Points
7 years ago

Radical alkyl intermediates are stabilized by similar physical processes tocarbocations: as a general rule, the more substituted the radical center is, the more stable it is. This directs their reactions. Thus, formation of a tertiary radical (R3C·) is favored over secondary (R2HC·), which is favored over primary (RH2C·). Likewise, radicals next to functional groups such as carbonyl, nitrile, and ether are more stable than tertiary alkyl radicals.

Radicals attack double bonds. However, unlike similar ions, such radical reactions are not as much directed by electrostatic interactions. For example, the reactivity of nucleophilic ions with a,ß-unsaturated compounds (C=C–C=O) is directed by the electron-withdrawing effect of the oxygen, resulting in a partial positive charge on the carbonyl carbon. There are two reactions that are observed in the ionic case: the carbonyl is attacked in a direct addition to carbonyl, or the vinyl is attacked inconjugate addition, and in either case, the charge on the nucleophile is taken by the oxygen. Radicals add rapidly to the double bond, and the resulting a-radical carbonyl is relatively stable; it can couple with another molecule or be oxidized. Nonetheless, the electrophilic/neutrophilic character of radicals has been shown in a variety of instances. One example is the alternating tendency of the copolymerization ofmaleic anhydride(electrophilic) andstyrene(slightly nucleophilic).

In intramolecular reactions, precise control can be achieved despite the extreme reactivity of radicals. In general, radicals attack the closest reactive site the most readily. Therefore, when there is a choice, a preference for five-membered rings is observed: four-membered rings are too strained, and collisions with carbons six or more atoms away in the chain are infrequent.

Carbenesandnitrenes, which are diradicals, have distinctive chemistry.

Thank You
Askiitians Faculty

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