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Grade: 12
        
Is it important to memorize the order of inductive and mesomeric effects for JEE (Main and Advanced)? If so, please provide me with an ACCURATE order of +I, -I, +M and -M effect respectively. 
3 months ago

Answers : (1)

Vikas TU
9499 Points
							
Dear student 
All halides are electron withdrawing groups, and all alkyls are electron donating. If the electronegative atom (missing an electron, thus having a positive charge) is then joined to a chain of atoms, usually carbon, the positive charge is relayed to the other atoms in the chain. This is the electron-withdrawing inductive effect, also known as the -I effect. In short, alkyl groups tend to donate electrons, leading to the +I effect.
The mesomeric effect in chemistry is a property of substituents or functional groups in a chemical compound. It is defined as the polarity produced in the molecule by the interaction of two pi bonds or between a pi bond and lone pair of electrons present on an adjacent atom. The effect is used in a qualitative way and describes the electron withdrawing or releasing properties of substituents based on relevant resonance structures and is symbolized by the letter M. The mesomeric effect is negative (–M) when the substituent is an electron-withdrawing group and the effect is positive (+M) when the substituent is an electron releasing group.
+M EFFECT ORDERS :
–O− > –NH2 > –NHR > –OR > –NHCOR > –OCOR > –Ph > –F > –Cl > –Br > –I
-M EFFECT ORDER :
–NO2 > –CN > --S(=O)2−OH > –CHO > –C=O > –COOCOR > –COOR > –COOH > –CONH2 > –COO−
3 months ago
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