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I need help to solve this two questions:- 1> How dsp 2 ,dsp 3 etc.hybrid orbitals are formed & what is the major difference between sp 3 d & dsp 3 hybridization? Please explain the answer. 2> what is ortho effect in the aromatic hydrocarbon? I am waiting for the answer......

I need help to solve this two questions:-
1> How dsp2,dsp3 etc.hybrid orbitals are formed & what is the major difference between sp3d & dsphybridization?
Please explain the answer.
2> what is ortho effect in the aromatic hydrocarbon?
I am waiting for the answer......
 

Grade:11

1 Answers

Aarti Gupta
askIITians Faculty 300 Points
6 years ago
Hybridisation is the process of intermixing of orbitals of different energies so as to give the set of orbitals which are equivalent in energies.Hybridisation is of various types depending on types of orbital invoved in this process.For ex- if s or p orbitals are involved then it may be sp,sp2,or sp3.If d orbitals are also participating then it may be sp3d,sp3d2 sp3d3 etc.Now depending on type of d-orbital participating, hybridisation may be sp3d or dsp3.The major difference between them is that in sp3d outer d-orbital is participating and in dsp3 inner d-orbital is involved.Now in both dsp2 and dsp3 hybrid orbitals inner d-orbitals are hybridising.We know that d-orbital is the set of 5-orbitals dxy,dyz,dxz,dx2-y2 and dz2 respectively.In both the above hybridisation only one d-orbital is involved.Intermixing of one-d ,one-s and two p-orbitals leads to dsp2 hybridisation and in dsp3 there is intermixing of one-d,one-s and three-p orbitals occurs.
ortho-effect-
In aromatic hydrocarbon otho position is the 1,2 position of an substituent.In this effect nature of substituent (e- donating or withdrawing) does not matters.This effect occurs when an aryl acid or aryl base is substituted at ortho position.Due to steric factor between substituted groups, it makes acidic or basic group to go out of plane and it does not allow resonance of pi electrons and lone pair of acidic and basic group to resonate inside benzene. For ex- lone pair of NH3 in aniline stays with nitrogen instead of resonating in whole benzene group,thereby increasing electron density on NH3 making it more basic.Similarly in acidic group COOH of benzoic acid pi electron stay with benzene due to this 2 equivalent resonating structure forms in COO- group after loosing H+ ion, making COO- group more stable and hence making benzoic acid more acidic.

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