1 Answers

Sachin Tyagi
31 Points
13 years ago

Antibiotics:- The term antibiotics has been derived from the world antibiosis, which means survival of fittest, i.e., a process in which one organism may destroy another to preserve itself. It is a chemical substance produced by or derived from living cells which is capable of inhibiting the life processes or even destroying micro organism.

The first antibiotic, discovered by Alexander Fleming in 1929 from mould penicillium notatum, was penicillin. In 1038, Ernst Chain and Howard Florey isolate penicillin in pure form and proved its effectiveness s an antibiotic. It was introduced into medical practice in 1941. Pencillin is used against large number of infections caused by various cocci, gram positive bacteria, etc. it is an effective drug for pneumonia, bronchitis, sore throat and abcesses.

The penicillins are only sparingly soluble in water. However, their sodium or potassium salts are solube in water. Penicillins are found to be active against gram positive stains. However, these are ineffective against gram negative organisms.  Organisms sometimes develop resistance to penicillins. Penicillins generally have low toxicity in comparison to sulphadrugs. However, in some cases allergic reactions may result in. penicillin is thus, given after a test prick.

Scientists have discovered a number of other antibiotics. These have proved to be as effective as penicillin but some of these are broad spectrum and are more effective.

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