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Grade: 12
        List of reagents of all chapters and their function 
6 years ago

Answers : (2)

Aman Bansal
592 Points
							Dear Ram,

List of Organic Reagents

Aqueous NaOH

Reflux

Nucleophilic substitution, converts haloalkanes to alcohols.

Mg in dry ether

Reflex

Used to make grignard reagents with haloalkanes.

PCI5

Room temperature

Chlorinating agent, reacts with OH group in alcohols and carboxylic acids

HNO3 and H2SO4

55C

Adds NO2 group onto benzene ring.

CI3 and AICI3

Warm gently

Adds CI group onto benzene ring.

CH3CH2CI and AICI3

Warm gently

Adds CH3CH2 group onto benzene ring.

HCI and NaNO2

Below 5C

Forms diazonium salts with phenylamine.

 

Name of Reagent

Conditions

Example of its Use

K2Cr2O7 with conc. H2SO4

Warm gently

Oxidising agent, used commonly for oxidising secondary alcohols to ketones.

Excess conc. H2SO4

Heat to 170 C

Dehydrating agent, used to dehydrate alcohols to alkenes.

Cl2(g)

Ultra Violet light

Free radical reaction, used to convert alkanes to haloalkanes.

Br2 in CCI4

Room temperature, in the dark

Electrophilic addition, converts alkenes to dihaloalkanes.

H2(g)

Nickel catalyst, 300 C and 30 atmospheres pressure

Hydrogenating agent, used to convert benzene to cylcohexane.

H2(g)

Nickel catalyst, 150 C

Reducing agent, used to convert alkenes to alkanes

Tin in hydrochloric acid

Reflux

Reducing agent for converting nitrobenzene to phenylamine.

Acidified KMNO4

Room temperature

Oxidising agent, converts alkenes to diols.

NaOH in ethanol

Reflux

Elimination reaction, converts haloalkanes to alkenes.

 

Intramolecular Cannizaro

 

 

 

 

i)  Aluminium isobutoxide

ii) Acetone (Oppenaur Oxidation)

 

Reverse of MPV oxidises alcohol to carbonyl

 

 

 

RO- (Claisen Schmidt Reaction)

 

 

 

 

i) Acetic anhydride

ii) Sodium acetate (Perkin’s reaction)

 

 

i)  Aluminium isobutoxide

ii) Propan-2 ol (MPV Reduction)

 

Reduces ketone to alcohol

 

 

 

 

Cannizaro Reaction

 

This is reaction of compounds which don’t have alpha hydrogen

 

 

 

 

Cross Cannizaro

 

 

Anhydrous H contains no water

 

 

 

 

i) CHCH3 - Alc KOH

ii) H3O+ (Riemann Tiemann)

 

 

 

 

(i) CO2

(ii) H3O+ (Kolbe’s reaction)

High Pressure

 

 

 

AlCl3 (Fries rearrangement)

Heat

 

 

 

(i) K2S2O8

(ii) H3O+ (Elb’s persulphate oxidation)

 

 

 

 

 

(i) Fused NaOH

(ii) H3O+ (Dow’s process)

High Pressure

 

KMnO4, H+ (or) K2Cr2O7, H+ (or) H2CrO4

 

Oxidises alcohol to acid

 

 

 

PCC (Pyrindinium) chloro chromate

Solvent CS2

Restricted oxidation of alcohol. Forms aldehyde.

 

 

 

MnO2 special oxidising agent for alcohol

 

 

 

 

HI

 

 

For 1 degree carbon

 

For 3 degree carbon

 

 

 

 

Conc HI contains very less water

 

 

(i) Alc KOH

(ii) NaNH2

 

 

 

 

X2 CCI4

 

Adds both X on compound having double or triple bond

 

 

 

Cold Dil KMnO4

 

 

   

Hot KMnO4

 

 

   

CF3SO3-

 

Super Leaving Group

 

 

 

LiAH4 –ether

 

Reduces ester to alcohol

 

 

 

NaBH4- ROH (protic solvent)

 

Reduces to alcohol but cannot act on ester

 

 

 

Cr2O2-Cu2O

Heat, High Pressure

Causes cleavage and reduction of ester

 

OSO4 + H2O-NaHSO3 or Cold Dilute KMnO4 (Hydroxylation)

 

Gives syn vicinal dihalide from alkene

 

 

 

 

Per-formic acid (Anti Hydroxylation)

 

Gives anti vicinal diol

 

 

 

 

HBr in presence of H2O2 (Only for HBr)

 

Anti Marknokov’s

 

 

 

 

Hot Alkaline KMnO4

 

Replaces “=” with either C = O or COOH

 

 

 

 

CH2-I2, ZnCu

 

Adds methyl in cyclic manner

 

Alcoholic KOH

 

Removes HX from compound and adds double bond

 

 

 

Zn dust

 

Removes all HX

 

 

 

H2 PdBaSO4 or S-Quinoline (Lindhar’s catalyst) or BH3-THF

 

Reduces alkyne to alkene

 

 

 

 

Ph3P = CH2

 

Replaces O of Carbonyl with methyl

 

 

 

NOX

 

 

 

 

ONDM (Oxymercuration demercuration)

(i) Hg (OAC)2 + THF-H2O

(ii) NaBH4-OH-

 

 

NBS

 

Substitutes allyic carbon with aldehyde

 

 

 

(i) NH2-NH2

(ii) RO-

heat

Reduces carbonyl group to ketone or aldehyde

 

 

 

H3PO2

Heat

Removes diazo group

 

 

 

LiAH4 or NaBH4 or Ph3 SnH

 

Reduction

R2 CuL (Lithium dialkylcuprate)

 

Removes halogen from RX and adds R

 

 

 

Mg-ether

 

Adds Mg between R &  X

Red P + HI

 

Reduces all to corresponding alkanes

 

Name

Condition

Example

Br2 + CS2

 

Causes Br to go on ring

 

 

 

Br2 + H2O

Compound should be more activated than benzene

 

 

 

Sn + HCI

 

Reduces group

CuCI + HCI

 

Removes Diazo group

 

 

 

NH4H or NaS or Na2S

 

Special regents which reduce only 1 NO2 group

 

 

 

CrO2CI2 + H3O+

 

Converts toluene to benzaidehyde


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Thanks

Aman Bansal
6 years ago
danish
13 Points
							Same as upper answer it is perfect answer I seen ever thank u Thanks for all list I have much fee of reagents and cannot find anywhere list of all reagents thanks askiitians
						
one year ago
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