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how to find whethera group attached to benzene ring is ortho para or mea directing?

how to find whethera group attached to benzene ring is ortho para or mea directing?


 

Grade:12

1 Answers

Sanjeev Malik IIT BHU
101 Points
10 years ago

 An  Electron Donating Group(EDG)  is Ortho-para directing in nature when attached to a benzene ring. . Electron Withdrawing Groups(EWG) are  meta-directing in nature.

Halogens(-I,-Br,-F,-Cl)  as EDG are  exception because they have strong inductive effect. so overall deactivatig.

e.g,

Ortho-Para Directing Groups :

Alcohols(-OH), Ethers(-OR), -X(Halogens) , NH2  etc

Meta-Directing Groups :

-NO2(Nitro) ,-SO3H(Sulphonyl) ,Carbonyl Groups ,Esters(-COOR),Carboxylic Acids(-COOH) etc

 

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