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Grade: 11
        

Explain:


Electron donating groups activate the benzene ring to electrophilic aromatic substitution.

9 years ago

Answers : (1)

shashank Saxena
13 Points
							

 

Electron donating groups activate the benzene ring to electrophilic aromatic substitution.

  1. electron donating groups increase the electron density in the ring and make it more reactive with electrophiles.
  2. electron donation stabilizes the intermediate carbocation, lowers the Eact and increases the rate.


Electron withdrawing groups deactivate the benzene ring to electrophilic aromatic substitution.

  1. electron withdrawing groups decrease the electron density in the ring and make it less reactive with electrophiles.
  2. electron withdrawal destabilizes the intermediate carbocation, raising the Eact and slowing the rate.

 

9 years ago
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