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what is principle of conservation of momentum?

10 years ago

Dear Mitali,

According to principal of conservation of momentum the momentum of a system before and after collision remail same.

for example: if a particle of mass 2 kg was intially moving with velocity 5m/s. It collides with a body of mass 6kg and sticks to it then find the velocity after collision.

solution:- intially only one particle was moving so its momentum will be mv = 2*5= 10

finally both particles are moving and the whole mass of system is 2+6=8kg so final momentum will be 8V. so by principal of conservation of momentum 10=8V

V=10/8.

and it is only valid untill no external force is acting.

10 years ago

One of the most powerful laws in physics is the law of momentum conservation. The law of momentum conservation can be stated as follows.

For a collision occurring between object 1 and object 2 in an isolated system, the total momentum of the two objects before the collision is equal to the total momentum of the two objects after the collision. That is, the momentum lost by object 1 is equal to the momentum gained by object 2.

**The above statement tells us that the total momentum of a collection of objects (a ***system*) is *conserved* - that is, the total amount of momentum is a constant or unchanging value. This law of momentum conservation will be the focus of the remainder of Lesson 2. To understand the basis of momentum conservation, let's begin with a short logical proof.

Consider a collision between two objects - object 1 and object 2. For such a collision, the forces acting between the two objects are equal in magnitude and opposite in direction (Newton's third law). This statement can be expressed in equation form as follows.

The forces act between the two objects for a given amount of time. In some cases, the time is long; in other cases the time is short. Regardless of how long the time is, it can be said that the time that the force acts upon object 1 is equal to the time that the force acts upon object 2. This is merely logical. Forces result from interactions (or contact) between two objects. If object 1 contacts object 2 for 0.050 seconds, then object 2 must be contacting object 1 for the same amount of time (0.050 seconds). As an equation, this can be stated as

Since the forces between the two objects are equal in magnitude and opposite in direction, and since the times for which these forces act are equal in magnitude, it follows that the impulses experienced by the two objects are also equal in magnitude and opposite in direction. As an equation, this can be stated as

But the impulse experienced by an object is equal to the change in momentum of that object (the impulse-momentum change theorem). Thus, since each object experiences equal and opposite impulses, it follows logically that they must also experience equal and opposite momentum changes. As an equation, this can be stated as

The above equation is one statement of the law of momentum conservation. In a collision, the momentum change of object 1 is equal to and opposite of the momentum change of object 2. That is, the momentum lost by object 1 is equal to the momentum gained by object 2. In most collisions between two objects, one object slows down and loses momentum while the other object speeds up and gains momentum. If object 1 loses 75 units of momentum, then object 2 gains 75 units of momentum. Yet, the total momentum of the two objects (object 1 plus object 2) is the same before the collision as it is after the collision. The total momentum of *the system* (the collection of two objects) is conserved.

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