# 1.  How is the direction of electric field same as the direction of induced current in a closed loop placed in a varying magnetic field ?2.  Could someone plz explain eddy current.Are eddy currents produced only due to motion of a conductor in magnetic field.Plz explain about the eddy currents in a bit detail.

ROSHAN MUJEEB
3 years ago
1 .If the wire is then wound into a coil, the magnetic field is greatly intensified producing a static magnetic field around itself forming the shape of a bar magnet giving a distinct North and South pole.[air cored electromagnetic coil]Air-core Hollow Coil

The magnetic flux developed around the coil being proportional to the amount of current flowing in the coils windings as shown. If additional layers of wire are wound upon the same coil with the same current flowing through them, the static magnetic field strength would be increased.

Therefore, the magnetic field strength of a coil is determined by theampere turnsof the coil. With more turns of wire within the coil, the greater the strength of the static magnetic field around it.

But what if we reversed this idea by disconnecting the electrical current from the coil and instead of a hollow core we placed a bar magnet inside the core of the coil of wire. By moving this bar magnet “in” and “out” of the coil a current would be induced into the coil by the physical movement of the magnetic flux inside it.

Likewise, if we kept the bar magnet stationary and moved the coil back and forth within the magnetic field an electric current would be induced in the coil. Then by either moving the wire or changing the magnetic field we can induce a voltage and current within the coil and this process is known asElectromagnetic Inductionand is the basic principle of operation of transformers, motors and generators.

Electromagnetic Inductionwas first discovered way back in the 1830’s byMichael Faraday. Faraday noticed that when he moved a permanent magnet in and out of a coil or a single loop of wire it induced anElectroMotiveForce oremf, in other words a Voltage, and therefore a current was produced.

So what Michael Faraday discovered was a way of producing an electrical current in a circuit by using only the force of a magnetic field and not batteries. This then lead to a very important law linking electricity with magnetism,Faraday’s Law of Electromagnetic Induction. So how does this work?.

When the magnet shown below is moved “towards” the coil, the pointer or needle of the Galvanometer, which is basically a very sensitive centre zero’ed moving-coil ammeter, will deflect away from its centre position in one direction only. When the magnet stops moving and is held stationary with regards to the coil the needle of the galvanometer returns back to zero as there is no physical movement of the magnetic field.

Likewise, when the magnet is moved “away” from the coil in the other direction, the needle of the galvanometer deflects in the opposite direction with regards to the first indicating a change in polarity. Then by moving the magnet back and forth towards the coil the needle of the galvanometer will deflect left or right, positive or negative, relative to the directional motion of the magnet.

Electromagnetic Induction by a Moving Magnet

[electromagnetic induction]Likewise, if the magnet is now held stationary and ONLY the coil is moved towards or away from the magnet the needle of the galvanometer will also deflect in either direction. Then the action of moving a coil or loop of wire through a magnetic field induces a voltage in the coil with the magnitude of this induced voltage being proportional to the speed or velocity of the movement.

Then we can see that the faster the movement of the magnetic field the greater will be the induced emf or voltage in the coil, so for Faraday’s law to hold true there must be “relative motion” or movement between the coil and the magnetic field and either the magnetic field, the coil or both can move.

From the above description we can say that a relationship exists between an electrical voltage and a changing magnetic field to which Michael Faraday’s famous law of electromagnetic induction states:“that a voltage is induced in a circuit whenever relative motion exists between a conductor and a magnetic field and that the magnitude of this voltage is proportional to the rate of change of the flux”.

In other words,Electromagnetic Inductionis the process of using magnetic fields to produce voltage, and in a closed circuit, a current.

So how much voltage (emf) can be induced into the coil using just magnetism. Well this is determined by the following 3 different factors.

1). Increasing the number of turns of wire in the coil – By increasing the amount of individual conductors cutting through the magnetic field, the amount of induced emf produced will be the sum of all the individual loops of the coil, so if there are 20 turns in the coil there will be 20 times more induced emf than in one piece of wire.
2). Increasing the speed of the relative motion between the coil and the magnet – If the same coil of wire passed through the same magnetic field but its speed or velocity is increased, the wire will cut the lines of flux at a faster rate so more induced emf would be produced.
3). Increasing the strength of the magnetic field – If the same coil of wire is moved at the same speed through a stronger magnetic field, there will be more emf produced because there are more lines of force to cut.

If we were able to move the magnet in the diagram above in and out of the coil at a constant speed and distance without stopping we would generate a continuously induced voltage that would alternate between one positive polarity and a negative polarity producing an alternating or AC output voltage and this is the basic principle of how an electrical generator works similar to those used in dynamos and car alternators.

In small generators such as a bicycle dynamo, a small permanent magnet is rotated by the action of the bicycle wheel inside a fixed coil. Alternatively, an electromagnet powered by a fixed DC voltage can be made to rotate inside a fixed coil, such as in large power generators producing in both cases an alternating current.

2 .motional emf is induced when a conductor moves in a magnetic field or when a magnetic field moves relative to a conductor. If motional emf can cause a current loop in the conductor, we refer to that current as aneddy current. Eddy currents can produce significant drag, calledmagnetic damping, on the motion involved. Consider the apparatus shown in Figure 1, which swings a pendulum bob between the poles of a strong magnet. (This is another favorite physics lab activity.) If the bob is metal, there is significant drag on the bob as it enters and leaves the field, quickly damping the motion. If, however, the bob is a slotted metal plate, as shown in Figure 1(b), there is a much smaller effect due to the magnet. There is no discernible effect on a bob made of an insulator. Why is there drag in both directions, and are there any uses for magnetic drag?[The figure describes an experiment on exploring the effect of eddy currents. Part a of the figure shows a metal pendulum plate swinging between the pole pieces of a magnet. The pendulum is attached at one end to a pivot. Eddy currents are shown as small swirls on the surface of the plate. The oscillation is shown as damped by smaller displacement of the plate marked as S. Part b of the figure shows a slotted metal pendulum plate swinging between the pole pieces of a magnet. The pendulum is attached at one end to a pivot. Eddy currents are less effective. The oscillation is shown with a larger displacement of the plate marked as S, than the displacement in part a. Part c of the figure shows a non conducting pendulum plate swinging between the pole pieces of a magnet. The pendulum is attached at one end to a pivot. Extremely small currents are induced. The oscillation is shown with a larger displacement of the plate marked as S, than the displacement in part a.]Figure 1. A common physics demonstration device for exploring eddy currents and magnetic damping. (a) The motion of a metal pendulum bob swinging between the poles of a magnet is quickly damped by the action of eddy currents. (b) There is little effect on the motion of a slotted metal bob, implying that eddy currents are made less effective. (c) There is also no magnetic damping on a nonconducting bob, since the eddy currents are extremely small.

Figure 2shows what happens to the metal plate as it enters and leaves the magnetic field. In both cases, it experiences a force opposing its motion. As it enters from the left, flux increases, and so an eddy current is set up (Faraday’s law) in the counterclockwise direction (Lenz’s law), as shown. Only the right-hand side of the current loop is in the field, so that there is an unopposed force on it to the left (RHR-1). When the metal plate is completely inside the field, there is no eddy current if the field is uniform, since the flux remains constant in this region. But when the plate leaves the field on the right, flux decreases, causing an eddy current in the clockwise direction that, again, experiences a force to the left, further slowing the motion. A similar analysis of what happens when the plate swings from the right toward the left shows that its motion is also damped when entering and leaving the field.[The figure shows a more detailed description of a conducting plate attached to a pivot oscillating between the pole pieces of a magnet. A cross section is shown in the figure. The direction of magnetic field of the magnet is toward the plane of the paper. The direction of force, current and magnetic field at two extreme positions of the pendulum are marked. The direction of B is always into the paper. Based on the direction of force, the current direction of the pendulum at the two ends is marked as per the right hand rule. The eddy current on the plate is in anti clock wise direction in the left end and clock wise direction in the right end.]Figure 2. A more detailed look at the conducting plate passing between the poles of a magnet. As it enters and leaves the field, the change in flux produces an eddy current. Magnetic force on the current loop opposes the motion. There is no current and no magnetic drag when the plate is completely inside the uniform field.

When a slotted metal plate enters the field, as shown in Figure 3, an emf is induced by the change in flux, but it is less effective because the slots limit the size of the current loops. Moreover, adjacent loops have currents in opposite directions, and their effects cancel. When an insulating material is used, the eddy current is extremely small, and so magnetic damping on insulators is negligible. If eddy currents are to be avoided in conductors, then they can be slotted or constructed of thin layers of conducting material separated by insulating sheets.[The figure shows eddy currents induced in a slotted metal plate entering a magnetic field whose direction is shown as directed into the paper. The eddy currents are shown as small circular loops in line in each slot of the plate. The eddy currents are in such a way that neighboring loops in a single slot have currents in opposite direction. An enlarged view of two neighboring eddy currents in a slot is also shown.]Figure 3. Eddy currents induced in a slotted metal plate entering a magnetic field form small loops, and the forces on them tend to cancel, thereby making magnetic drag almost zero.

Applications of Magnetic Damping

One use of magnetic damping is found in sensitive laboratory balances. To have maximum sensitivity and accuracy, the balance must be as friction-free as possible. But if it is friction-free, then it will oscillate for a very long time. Magnetic damping is a simple and ideal solution. With magnetic damping, drag is proportional to speed and becomes zero at zero velocity. Thus the oscillations are quickly damped, after which the damping force disappears, allowing the balance to be very sensitive. (See Figure 4.) In most balances, magnetic damping is accomplished with a conducting disc that rotates in a fixed field.[The figure shows a sensitive simple balance. The needle of this balance is held between the pole pieces of a magnet. The magnetic field direction is shown toward the plane of the paper. An enlarged view of the needle of balance and the magnets is also shown. The needle is shown as free to oscillate to and fro between the pole pieces of the magnet.]Figure 4. Magnetic damping of this sensitive balance slows its oscillations. Since Faraday’s law of induction gives the greatest effect for the most rapid change, damping is greatest for large oscillations and goes to zero as the motion stops.

Since eddy currents and magnetic damping occur only in conductors, recycling centers can use magnets to separate metals from other materials. Trash is dumped in batches down a ramp, beneath which lies a powerful magnet. Conductors in the trash are slowed by magnetic damping while nonmetals in the trash move on, separating from the metals. (See Figure 5.) This works for all metals, not just ferromagnetic ones. A magnet can separate out the ferromagnetic materials alone by acting on stationary trash.[A picture of a tipper truck unloading the trash down a ramp is shown. There is a rectangular block of magnet half way across the ramp with the north pole facing the ramp for separating metals from other trash by magnetic drag.]Figure 5. Metals can be separated from other trash by magnetic drag. Eddy currents and magnetic drag are created in the metals sent down this ramp by the powerful magnet beneath it. Nonmetals move on.

Other major applications of eddy currents are in metal detectors and braking systems in trains and roller coasters. Portable metal detectors (Figure 6) consist of a primary coil carrying an alternating current and a secondary coil in which a current is induced. An eddy current will be induced in a piece of metal close to the detector which will cause a change in the induced current within the secondary coil, leading to some sort of signal like a shrill noise. Braking using eddy currents is safer because factors such as rain do not affect the braking and the braking is smoother. However, eddy currents cannot bring the motion to a complete stop, since the force produced decreases with speed. Thus, speed can be reduced from say 20 m/s to 5 m/s, but another form of braking is needed to completely stop the vehicle. Generally, powerful rare earth magnets such as neodymium magnets are used in roller coasters