want to understand group 13

want to understand group 13


2 Answers

Aarti Gupta
askIITians Faculty 300 Points
8 years ago
Group 13 of the periodictable is known asboron family.This group consist of boron,aluminium,gallium,indium and thallium.The elements of this group consist of threeelectronsin the outermost parts of their atomic structure. Boron, the lightest of these elements, is anonmetal, but the other members of the group are silvery-whitemetals.
Physical properties--It is found that elements in the boron group have similarphysical properties, although most of boron's are exceptional. For example, all the elements in the boron group, except for boron itself, aresoft. Moreover, all of the other elements in group 13 are relatively reactive at moderatetemperatures, while boron's reactivity only becomes comparable at very high temperature.
Chemical Reactivity
Hydrides--Elements in this family combines with hydrogen to form hydrides.Boron, the first element in the group is capable of forming many compounds withhydrogen which are known as boranes.The simplest borane is diborane, or B2H6.
The next elements aluminiumandgallium, form fewer stable hydrides, although both AlH3and GaH3exist. Indium, the next element in the group, is not known to form many hydrides, except in complex compounds such as thephosphinecomplex .No stable compound of thallium and hydrogen has been synthesized in any laboratory.
Oxides--All of the boron-group elements are known to form a trivalent oxide, with two atoms of the element bondedcovalentlywith three atoms ofoxygen. Boron oxide(B2O3) is slightly acidic,aluminiumandgallium oxide(Al2O3and Ga2O3respectively) are amphoteric,indium(III) oxide(In2O3) is nearly amphoteric, andthallium(III) oxide(Tl2O3) is aLewis base.
Halides--The elements in group 13 are also capable of forming stable compounds with thehalogens, usually with the formula MX3(where M is a boron-group element and X is a halogen.) The only exception to this isthallium(III) iodide.
Oxidation states--Theinert s-pair effectis significant in the group-13 elements, especially the heavier ones like thallium.As result elements shows variety of oxidation states. In the lighter elements, the +3 state is the most stable, but the +1 state becomes more prevalent with increasing atomic number, and is the most stable for thallium. Boron is capable of forming compounds with lower oxidization states, of +1 or +2, and also the Al. Ga can form compounds with the oxidation states +1, +2 and +3. Indium is like gallium, but its +1 compounds are more stable than those of the lighter elements. The strength of the inert-pair effect is maximum in thallium, which is generally only stable in the oxidation state of +1, although the +3 state is seen in some compounds.
36 Points
8 years ago
how can anyone write about whole chapter
it is better you read it in ncert or reference books

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