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Grade: 12
        
geometrical isomerism in [m abcd] type ? how to show this isomerism ?
one year ago

Answers : (1)

Arun
23506 Points
							
Two or more different compounds having the same formula are called isomers. Two principal types of isomerism are known among coordination compounds. Each of which can be further subdivided.
1. Stereoisomerism.
a) Geometrical isomerism
b) Optical isomerism
2. Structural Isomerism.
a) Coordination isomerism
b) Ionisation isomerism
c) Hydrate isomerism
d) Linkage isomerism
1. Stereoisomers
Stereoisomers have the same atoms, same sets of bonds, but differ in the relative orientation of these bonds.
Ignoring special cases involving esoteric ligands, then:
Geometric isomers are possible for both square planar and octahedral complexes, but not tetrahedral.
Optical isomers are possible for both tetrahedral and octahedral complexes, but not square planar.
The earliest examples of stereoisomerism involve complexes of Co(III). In 1889, Jorgensen observed purple and green salts of [CoCl2(en)2]+, which Werner later correctly identified as the cis- and trans- geometric isomers. In 1911, the first resolution of optical isomers was reported by Werner and King for the complexes cis-[CoX(NH3)(en)2]2+, where X=Cl- or Br-.
Geometric Isomers
The number of geometric isomers expected for common stereochemistries are as follows:
Square Planar:
Compound type       No. of isomers
Ma2b2                      2 (cis- and trans-)
Mabcd                     3 (use cis- and trans- relations)
here a, b, c, and d refer to monodentate ligands.
A number of examples of these types have been isolated and characterised and they show very different chemical and biological properties. Thus for example, cis-PtCl2(NH3)2is an anti-cancer agent (cisplatin) whereas the trans- isomer is inactive against cancer (it is toxic), and so not useful in Chemotherapy.
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one year ago
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