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Grade: 12
        Anomalous properties of fluorine , oxygen,nitrogen and reasons
one year ago

Answers : (3)

22820 Points
Anomalous Behavior of Oxygen:- Like the usual trend of P-block elements, oxygen, the first member of gp. 16 differ from rest of the members of this group. The anomalous behavior of oxygen is due to the following properties:-
  1. Small size.
  1. High electronegativity.
  1. Non-availability of d-orbitals in the valency shell.
Points of difference
  1. Oxygen is a diatomic gas while others are complex solids.
  1. Oxygen is highly non-metallic due to high value of electronegativity.
  1. Oxygen is O2-ion very easily; the di-negative anions of other members are less common.
  1. Oxygen exhibits an oxidation state of -2 only except in OF2 where it has +2 state and peroxides where it has         1 state whereas rest all members show +4 and +6 oxidation states in addition to +2 oxidation state.
  1. Oxygen molecule is highly stable because the two atoms are held together by fairly strong multiple bond having bond energy quite high. Thus ordinary oxygen is not active under ordinary conditions.
  1. Oxygen molecule is paramagnetic in nature in gaseous, liquid and solid states and has two unpaired electrons. Rest all are diamagnetic.
  1. Hydrogen bonding is present in water and may other compounds of oxygen due to high electronegativity of oxygen.
  1. Oxygen is the most abundant element on this planet.
  1. Oxygen is capable of forming P?-P? bonds with other elements of smaller size like carbon, nitrogen etc. the other members of this group do not show the tendency to exhibit such multiple bonding.
one year ago
Chhavi Jain
92 Points
Dear student,
Anomalous Behaviour :
 nirtogen : 
(i) It forms pπ -pπ  multiple bonds . eg. NΞN ( or with high electronegative elements like C, O ). Other elements of this group does not form pπ -pπ  bonds because of their large size they cant have effective overlapping.
(ii) It cannot form  dπ -pπ bonds because of the absence of the d orbitals.
(iii) N-N is weaker than P-P bond because in case of nitrogen due to its small size non-bonding electrons have high repulsion.
(iv) Nitrogen forms tripple bond b/w its atoms (NΞN ),  while P,As and Sb forms single bond ( eg. P-P) , while Bi is metallic.
 oxygen :  due to the high electronegativity of oxygen , there is strong H-bonding present in water which is not there in H2S.
fluorine : 
(i) Most reactions of fluorine are exothermic because it forms strong and small bonds with other elements.
(ii) HF is a liquid due to strong H-bonding while other halogen halides are gases .
(i) small size 
(ii) high electronegativity
(iii) absence of d orbitals
(iv) high IE
Chemistry consultant
one year ago
15 Points

Oxygen is the first member of the group 16 family and differs from the other members of the family because of

(1) Its small size

(2) Its high electronegativity

(3) Its high ionisation energy

(4) Absence of d-orbitals in the valence shell

It differs from the other members of the family as follows:

(1) Elemental state : Oxygen is a diatomic gas while others are octa-atomic solids with eight membered puckered ring structure.

(2) Oxidation states : Oxygen shows O.S. of –2 in most of its compounds. It also shows an O. S. of +2 in F2O and –1 in H2O2 or other peroxides. It cannot show O.S. beyond 2. Other elements show oxidation states of +2, +4 and +6 because these elements have vacant d-orbitals so that their valence shell can expand.

(3) Hydrogen-bonding: Oxygen atom is very small and has quite high nuclear charge. therefore, it has high value of electronegativity and is able to form H-bonds. the other elements, because of their large size, cannot form H-bonds. As a result, H2O is liquid while H2S is a gas and H2Se etc., are solids.

(4) Maximum covalency: Oxygen has a maxium covalency of two while other elements can show a maximum covalency of six. This is because these elements have vacant d-orbitals while oxygen has not.

(5) Types of compounds: The compounds of oxygen are mainly ionic and polar covalent due to high electronegativity of oxygen while those of others are not.

(6) Magnetic character : Oxygen is paramagnetic while others are not.


one year ago
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