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properties of silver

properties of silver


1 Answers

65 Points
9 years ago
Silver [Ag]  
CAS-ID: 7440-22-4
An: 47 N: 61
Am: 107.8682 g/mol
Group No: 11
Group Name: Coinage metal
Block: d-block Period: 5
State: solid at 298 K
Colour: silver Classification: Metallic
Boiling Point: 2435K (2162°C)
Melting Point: 1234.93K (961.78°C)
Density: 10.49g/cm3


Discovery Information
Who: Known to the ancients. Silver has been coined to produce money since 700 BC by the Lydians, in the form of electrum. Later, silver was refined and coined in its pure form. The words for "silver" and "money" are the same in at least 14 languages.
Name Origin
Latin argentum (silver). Silver from old english seolfor for silver.

Found in ores called argentite (AgS), light ruby silver (Ag3AsS3), dark ruby silver (Ag3SbS3) and brittle silver. The main sources of silver are in Canada, Mexico (the largest producer), Peru, Australia and the USA. Around 10 thousand tons are produced annually.
Universe: 0.0006 ppm (by weight)
Sun: 0.001 ppm (by weight)
Carbonaceous meteorite: 0.14 ppm
Earths Crust: 0.07 ppm
Atlantic surface: n/a ppm
Atlantic deep: n/a ppm
Pacific surface: 1 x 10-7 ppm
Pacific deep: 2.4 x 10-6 ppm
Used in alloys for jewellery, in many compounds, coins, photographic film and paper electronics, solder, mirrors and batteries.
Silver has been known since antiquity. It has long been valued as a precious metal and used in currency, ornaments and jewelry, as well as utensils (hence the term silverware). Silver bullion has the ISO currency code of XAG. Today, it is also used in photographic film, electrical contacts, and mirrors. Elemental silver is also used to catalyze chemical reactions.
Silver has been used for thousands of years for ornaments and utensils, for trade, and as the basis for many monetary systems. Its value as a precious metal was long considered second only to gold. In Ancient Egypt and Medieval Europe, it was often more valuable than gold.
Sterling silver is 92.5% silver and 7.5% other metals, usually copper, although other elements, such as germanium, zinc, platinum, silicon and boron can also be used to improve various properties.
Electrons per shell 2,8,18,18,1
Electron Configuration [Kr] 4d10 5s1  
Ground state 2S1/2
Atomic Volume 10.3 cm3 mol-1
Electronegativity 1.93
Magnetic ordering Diamagnetic
Mass magnetic susceptibility -2.3 x 10-9
Molar magnetic susceptibility -2.48 x 10-10
Speed of sound 2680 m s-1
Thermal Properties
Enthalpy of Atomization 284.5 kJ mol-1 @25°C
Enthalpy of Fusion 11.3 kJ mol-1
Enthalpy of Vaporisation 257.7 kJ mol-1
Heat Capacity 25.350 J mol-1 K-1
Thermal Conductivity 429 W m-1 K-1
Thermal Expansion 18.9 μm m-1 K-1
Brinell hardness 24.5 MPa
Mohs hardness 2.5
Vickers hardness 251 MPa
Elastic Properties
Bulk modulus 100 GPa
Poisson ratio 0.37
Shear modulus 30 GPa
Youngs modulus 83 GPa
Electrical Properties
Electrical resistivity 1.6 x 10-8 Ω m
Electrical conductivity 0.63 106/cm Ω
Chemical Properties
Electrochemical Equivalent 4.0246 g Ah-1
Electron Work Function 4.26 eV
Valence Electron Potential (-eV) 11.4
Ionization Potential
First 7.576
Second 21.49
Third 34.83
Incompatibilities Acetylene (C2H2), ammonia (NH3), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), bromoazide, chlorine trifluoride (ClF3), ethyleneimine (C2H5N), oxalic acid (C2H2O4), tartaric acid (C4H6O6).
Non-combustible solid (except as dust)
Energy Levels
Kα1 (intensity 100) 22.16292 KeV
Kα2 (intensity 50) 21.9903 KeV
Kβ1 (intensity 18.4) 24.9424 KeV
Kβ2 (intensity 4.6) 25.4527 KeV
Kβ3 (intensity 8.3) 24.9074 KeV
Lα1 (intensity 100) 2.98431 KeV
Lα2 (intensity 10) 2.97821 KeV
Lβ1 (intensity 44) 3.15094 KeV
Lβ2 (intensity 11) 3.34781 KeV
Lβ3 (intensity 9) 3.2324 KeV
Lβ4 (intensity 4) 3.2028 KeV
Lγ1 (intensity 3) 3.51959 KeV
Lγ2 (intensity 1.5) 3.7492 KeV
Lγ3 (intensity 2) 2.806 KeV
Ll (intensity 4.5) 2.6305 KeV
Atomic Radii
Empirical 160 pm
Bohr Radius 165 pm
Covalent Radius 153 pm
Van der Waals 172 pm
Triple covalent 137 pm
Metallic 144 pm
Oxidation States
Main Ag+1
Other Ag0, Ag+2, Ag+3
Ionisation Energies (kJ mol-1)  
M - M+ 731
M+ - M2+ 2073
M2+ - M3+ 3361
M3+ - M4+ 5000
M4+ - M5+ 6700
M5+ - M6+ 8600
M6+ - M7+ 11200
M7+ - M8+ 13400
M8+ - M9+ 15600
M9+ - M10+ 18000
Vapour Pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1K 10K 100K
T (K) 1283 1413 1575 1782 2055 2433
Crystal Structure
Structure Cubic close packed
a = 408.53 pm
b = 408.53 pm
c = 408.53 pm
α = 90°
β = 90°
γ = 90°
Isotopes of Silver


Notable Isotopes  
105Ag [58 neutrons]
Abundance: synthetic
Half life: 41.2 days [ Electron Capture ]
Decay Energy: ? MeV
Decays to 105Pd.
Half life: 41.2 days [ Gamma Radiation ]
Decay Energy: 0.344, 0.280, 0.644, 0.443 MeV
Decays to ?.
106mAg [59 neutrons]
Abundance: synthetic
Half life: 8.28 days [ Electron Capture ]
Decay Energy: ? MeV
Decays to 106Pd.
Half life: 8.28 days [ Gamma Radiation ]
Decay Energy: 0.511, 0.717, 1.045, 0.450 MeV
107Ag [60 neutrons]
Abundance: 51.839%
Stable with 60 neutrons
108mAg [61 neutrons]
Abundance: synthetic
Half life: 418 years [ Electron Capture ]
Decay Energy: ? MeV
Decays to 108Pd.
Half life: 418 years
Decay Energy: 0.109 MeV
Decays to 108Ag.
Half life: 418 years [ Gamma Radiation ]
Decay Energy: 0.433, 0.614, 0.722 MeV
Decays to ?.
109Ag [62 neutrons]
Abundance: 48.161%
Stable with 62 neutrons
111Ag [63 neutrons]
Abundance: synthetic
Half life: 7.45 days [ beta- ]
Decay Energy: 1.036, 0.694 MeV
Decays to 111Cd.
Half life: 7.45 days [ Gamma Radiation ]
Decay Energy: 0.342 MeV
Decays to ?.  

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