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whatis the reason for the formation of inverted image formed by the lens?

whatis the reason for the formation of inverted image formed by the lens?

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1 Answers

Aman Bansal
592 Points
9 years ago

Dear Nikhitha

Image Formation by Thin Lenses

There are two alternative methods of locating the image formed by a thin lens. Just as for spherical mirrors, the first method is graphical, and the second analytical.

The graphical method of locating the image formed by a thin lens involves drawing light-rays emanating from key points on the object, and finding where these rays are brought to a focus by the lens. This task can be accomplished using a small number of simple rules.

Consider a converging lens. It is helpful to define two focal points for such a lens. The first, the so-called image focus, denoted $F_i$, is defined as the point behind the lens to which all incident light-rays parallel to the optic axis converge after passing through the lens. This is the same as the focal point $F$ defined previously. The second, the so-called object focus, denoted $F_o$, is defined as the position in front of the lens for which rays emitted from a point source of light placed at that position would be refracted parallel to the optic axis after passing through the lens. It is easily demonstrated that the object focus $F_o$ is as far in front of the optic centre $O$ of the lens as the image focus $F_i$ is behind $O$. The distance from the optic centre to either focus is, of course, equal to the focal length $f$ of the lens. The image produced by a converging lens can be located using just three simple rules:

  1. An incident ray which is parallel to the optic axis is refracted through the image focus $F_i$ of the lens.
  2. An incident ray which passes through the object focus $F_o$ of the lens is refracted parallel to the optic axis.
  3. An incident ray which passes through the optic centre $O$ of the lens is not refracted at all.

The last rule is only an approximation. It turns out that although a light-ray which passes through the optic centre of the lens does not change direction, it is displaced slightly to one side. However, this displacement is negligible for a thin lens.

Figure 80 illustrates how the image $ST$ of an object $ST$ placed in front of a converging lens is located using the above rules. In fact, the three rays, 1-3, emanating from the tip $T$ of the object, are constructed using rules 1-3, respectively. Note that the image is real (since light-rays actually cross), inverted, and diminished.

Figure 80: Image formation by a converging lens.
\begin{figure} \epsfysize =2.5in \centerline{\epsffile{converge.eps}} \end{figure}

 

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