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The stable bivalency of Pb and trivalency of Bi is A. due to d contraction in Pb and Bi B. due to relativistic contraction of the 6s orbitals of Pb and Bi, leading to inert pair effect C. due to screening effect D. due to attainment of noble liquid configuration

The stable bivalency of Pb and trivalency of Bi is
A. due to d contraction in Pb and Bi
B. due to relativistic contraction of the 6s orbitals of Pb and Bi, leading to inert pair effect
C. due to screening effect
D. due to attainment of noble liquid configuration

Grade:

2 Answers

Arun
25763 Points
one year ago
83Bi=6s26p3Pb=6s26p2Bi=6s26p3
Due to inertness of 6s2 electrons in PbPb and BiBi, they show bivalency and trivalent respectively instead of tetravalent and pentavalency.
Vikas TU
14149 Points
one year ago
In the last element of the group, after the removal of electrons from p-orbitals, the remaining ns2 electrons behave like stable noble gas and do not take part in compound formation. This reluctance of the s- electron pair to take part in chemical combination is called inert pair effect. Thus, for the elements at the bottom of a group, lower oxidation state is more stable.

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