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losses in transformer?

losses in transformer?

Grade:upto college level

1 Answers

Saurabh Singh
askIITians Faculty 49 Points
7 years ago

Transformer losses are divided into losses in the windings, termed copper loss, and those in the magnetic circuit, termed iron loss. Losses in the transformer arise from:
1. Winding resistance
Current flowing through the windings causes resistive heating of the conductors.


2. Hysteresis losses
Each time the magnetic field is reversed, a small amount of energy is lost due to hysteresis within the core.


3. Eddy currents
Ferromagnetic materials are also good conductors, and a solid core made from such a material also constitutes a single short-circuited turn throughout its entire length. Eddy currents therefore circulate within the core in a plane normal to the flux, and are responsible for resistive heating of the core material.


4. Magnetostriction
Magnetic flux in a ferromagnetic material, such as the core, causes it to physically expand and contract slightly with each cycle of the magnetic field, an effect known as magnetostriction. This produces the buzzing sound commonly associated with transformers, and in turn causes losses due to frictional heating in susceptible cores.
5. Mechanical losses
In addition to magnetostriction, the alternating magnetic field causes fluctuating electromagnetic forces between the primary and secondary windings. These incite vibrations within nearby metalwork, adding to the buzzing noise, and consuming a small amount of power.
6. Stray losses
Leakage inductance is by itself largely lossless, since energy supplied to its magnetic fields is returned to the supply with the next half-cycle. However, any leakage flux that intercepts nearby conductive materials such as the transformer's support structure will give rise to eddy currents and be converted to heat. There are also radiative losses due to the oscillating magnetic field, but these are usually small.


Thanks & Regards
Saurabh Singh,
askIITians Faculty
B.Tech.
IIT Kanpur

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