 # i often confused how to relate  between speed, torque, current, and voltage in a dc machine. for example when ew write the power equation P= 2(pi)NT/60 =VI.from this eqation can I consider both N and T are directly related to current?I know that the answer is NO. because N and T are always inversly related. but why?can any one please cleare my confusion.

12 years ago

Dear student,

Here is the basic principle for your understanding:

he force F on a wire of length L carrying a current i in a magnetic field B is iLB times the sine of the angle between B and i, which would be 90° if the field were uniformly vertical. The direction of F comes from the right hand rule*, as shown here. The two forces shown here are equal and opposite, but they are displaced vertically, so they exert a torque. (The forces on the other two sides of the coil act along the same line and so exert no torque.)

* A number of different nmemonics are used to remember the direction of the force. Some use the right hand, some the left. For students who know vector multiplication, it is easy to use the Lorentz force directly:  F  =  q v X B ,  whence F  =  i dL X B . That is the origin of the diagram shown here.

The coil can also be considered as a magnetic dipole, or a little electromagnet, as indicated by the arrow SN: curl the fingers of your right hand in the direction of the current, and your thumb is the North pole. In the sketch at right, the electromagnet formed by the coil of the rotor is represented as a permanent magnet, and the same torque (North attracts South) is seen to be that acting to align the central magnet.

All the best.

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Sagar Singh

B.Tech, IIT Delhi

12 years ago

dear student,

DC motors are the simplest type; given a constant voltage, they run to a steady speed and steady current (electric torque= constant * current for DC motors).

If you need to control the torque (current), you use a current sensor (a resistor) as feedback to control the current.

If you need to control the speed, you use a speed sensor (tachometer, encoder etc) as a feedback to control the speed

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