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        wat is the direction of drift velocity with reference to the applied electric field?
8 years ago

							Dear student, $I = \frac{\Delta Q}{\Delta t}$ where ΔQ is the small amount of charge that passes through an area in a small unit of time, Δt.
One can relate ΔQ to the motion of charged particles in a wire expecting a dependence on the number density of the charge carriers and using dimensional analysis.

ΔQ $= \left( \mathrm{number \ of \ charged \ particles} \right) \times \left( \mathrm{charge \ per \ particle} \right)$ $= \left( n A \Delta x \right) q$

where n is the number of charge carriers per unit volumeA is the areaΔx is a small length along the wireq is the charge of the charge carriers
Now, normally particles move randomly, but under the influence of an  electric field in the wire, the charge carriers gain an average velocity  in a specific direction. This is what's called drift velocity, vd. And since Δx = vd Δt, we can plug it into the above equation. $\Delta Q = \left( n A v_d \Delta t \right) q$
Putting that back into the original equation and re-arranging to solve for the drift velocity: $v_d = \frac{I}{n q A}$

8 years ago
							the drift velocity has opposite dir as that of electric field because electrons experience force in that dir ie opp to electric field

8 years ago
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