what are the different methods of separation that are used to get individual components from a mixture.

what are the different methods of separation that are used to get individual components from a mixture.


1 Answers

131 Points
8 years ago
Ability of a solvent to evaporate. Separation of the volatile solvent (evaporating substance) from a non-volatile solute is by the method of evaporation
  • Separation of salt and sand
The principle is that the denser particles are forced to the bottom and the lighter particles stay at the top when spun rapidly. Used when solid particles in liquid are very small and can pass through a filter paper.
  • Used in diagnostic laboratories for blood and urine tests.
  • Used to separate butter from cream.
  • Used to separate cream from milk
  • Used to make cheese     ( paneer) from milk
  • Used in washing machines to squeeze out water from wet clothes.
Separation of two immiscible liquids  (separation of liquid – liquid mixture)
The principle is that immiscible liquids separate out in layers depending on their densities.
  • To separate mixture of oil and water.
  • In the extraction of iron from its ore, the lighter slag is removed from the top by this method to leave the molten iron at the bottom in the furnace.
Sublimation (separation of solid – solid mixtures)
Ability of one component to sublime. To separate mixtures that contain a sublimable  component from a non-sublimable impurity, the sublimation process is used
To separate
  • NH4Cl from salt
  • Iodine from sand
This process is based on the difference in absorption by a surface of an appropriate absorbent material or solid medium(stationary phase). The rate of a absorption of a particular constituent depends upon its solubility in the solvent (moving phase) and its affinity for the absorbing material. It is used for separation and identification of dissolved constituents of a mixture.
  • Separation of coloured constituents in mixture of ink
  • Separation of drugs from blood
  • Separation of pigments from natural colours
(solid – liquid – gas mixture) 
Heating a mixture without decomposition containing substances of different boiling points in absence of air followed by condensation of vapours.
  • separation of different gases from air
  • separation of different fractions from petroleum to obtain different petroleum products
  • to separate acetone and water
  • separation of potassium chloride from a solution of potassium chloride and water
  • separation of NaCl from a solution of NaCl and water
Solvent extraction
(solid – solid mixture)
Solubility of one component in a solvent
  • A mixture of sulphur and sand. Sulphur is soluble in carbon disulphide (CS2) and sand is insoluble.
Magnetic separation
(solid – solid
Magnetic property of one component
  • Mixture of iron ore and sand. Iron ore is attracted by magnet and sand is left behind
Gravity method
(solid – solid
Differences in densities of component
  • Mixture of sand and chalk powder. Sand being heavier than chalk powder sinks in water whereas chalk floats.

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