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A couple has two children, (i) Find the probability that both children are males, if it is known that at least one of the children is male. (ii) Find the probability that both children are females, if it is known that the elder child is a female.

A couple has two children,

(i) Find the probability that both children are males, if it is known that at least one of the children is male.

(ii) Find the probability that both children are females, if it is known that the elder child is a female.

Grade:12

1 Answers

Harshit Singh
askIITians Faculty 5963 Points
9 months ago
Dear Student

A couple has two children,

Let boy be denoted by b & girl be denoted by g

So, S = {(b, b) ,(b, g),(g, b), (g, g)}

To find probability that both children are males,
if known that at least one of children is male

Let E : Both children are males
F : At least one child is male

To find P(E|F)

E : Both children are males

E = {(b, b)}

P(E) = 1/4

F : At least one child is male

F = {(b, g), (g, b), (b, b)}

P(F) = 3/4

E ∩ F = {(b, b)}

P(E ∩ F ) = 1/4

P(E|F) = (𝑃(𝐸 ∩ 𝐹))/(𝑃(𝐹))

= (1/4)/(3/4)

= 1/3

Required Probability is 𝟏/πŸ‘

(ii) Find the probability that both children are females, if it is known that the elder child is a female.

S = {(b, b) ,(b, g),(g, b), (g, g)}

To find the probability that both children are females, if from that the elder child is a female.

Let E : both children are females
F : elder child is a female

To find P(E|F)

E : both children are females

E = {(g, g)}

P(E) = 1/4

F : elder child is a female

F = {(g, b), (g, g)}

P(F) = 2/4=1/2

Also, E ∩ F = {(g, g)}

So, P(E ∩ F) = 1/4

P(E|F) = (𝑃(𝐸 ∩ 𝐹))/(𝑃(𝐹))

= (1/4)/(1/2)

= ½

Thanks

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