Properties of Lithium

 
(a)    Physical Properties

(i)     Lithium is a silvery white metal.

(i)     It is the hardest alkali metal but still is soft enough to be cut with a knife.

(ii)    Atomic and ionic radii of lithium are the lowest amongst alkali metals.

 
(b)    Chemical Properties

Lithium is highly reactive element. However, among alkali metals lithium is the least reactive.

517_Chemical Properties.JPG

Alt text: chemical reactions of Lithium

Lithium is the only alkali metal which combines directly with nitrogen to form lithium nitride. Lithium nitride is ionic and is ruby red. On heating it decomposes to its constituent element. It also reacts with water evolving ammonia.

        Δ
2Li3N → 6Li + N2               
                 Δ 
 Li3N + 3H2O → 3LiOH + NH3

 

Reaction with ammonia

Like other alkali metals, lithium dissolves is liquid ammonia to form a deep blue solution due to formation of ammoniated electrons.

                       196-200k
Li + ( X + Y ) NH3 ———→ Li ( NH3)x + e- (NH3)y

However, when NH3 gas is passed over molten lithium. Lithium amide is formed

                 Δ
2Li + 2NH3 —→ 2LiNH2 + H2       
 
Uses of Lithium
 

(a)  Lithium lead alloy (0.05% Li) which is used for making toughened bearings and sheets for cables.

(b)  Lithium – Aluminium alloy has great tensile strength and elasticity like that of mild steel. It is used for air craft construction.

(c)  Lithium – magnesium alloy (with 14% Li) is extremely tough and corrosion resistant which is used for armour plate and aerospace components.

(d)  Lithium is used for refining of metal like copper and nickel as it combines readily with oxygen and nitrogen and thus removes the last traces of oxygen and nitrogen.

(e)  Lithium chloride is used in air conditioning plants to regulate the humidity.

(f)   Lithium aluminium hydride (LiAlH4) is used as a reducing agent in synthetic organic chemistry

(g)  Lithium carbonate is used in making special variety of glass which is very strong and is weather proof.

 

Name
Email Id
Mobile

Exam
Target Year

Related Resources
Difference-Alkaline Earth Metals and Alkali Metals

Difference between alkaline earth metals and...

Oxides of Magnesium and Calcium

Oxides of Magnesium and Calcium Oxides of Mg, Ca...

Anomolous Behaviour of Lithium

Anomolous Behaviour of Lithium and its Diagonal...

Halides of Alkali Metals

Halides of Alkali metals:- The alkali metals...

Alkaline Earth Metals

Alkaline Earth Metals The group 2 of the periodic...

Chemical Properties of Group II Elements

Chemical Properties of Group – II elements...

Magnesium Sulphate

Magnesium Sulphate Magnesium sulphate, Epsom salt...

Physical Properties of Alkali Metals

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES (i) All the alkali elements...

Properties of Sodium

Properties of Lithium (a) Physical Properties (i)...

Carbonates and Bicarbonates of Magnesium and Calcium

Calcium Carbonate (CaCO 3 ) It occurs in nature as...

Alkali Metals

Alkali Metals The group I comprising Li, Na, K,...

Solved Examples on Alkali Metals

Illustration: What is the most reactive alkali...

Salts of Oxoacids

Salts of oxoacids Since the alkali metals are...

Anamolous Behaviour of Beryllium

Anamolous Behaviour of Beryllium The properties of...

Plaster of Paris

Plaster of paris, CaSO 4 .1/2 H 2 O or (CaSO 4 ) 2...

Occurrence and uses of Alkaline Earth Metals

Occurrence and uses of alkaline earth metals...

Compounds of Alkaline Earth Metals

Halides The alkaline earth metals combine directly...

Magnesium

Magnesium Metal Magnesium occurs as magnesite MgCO...

Physical Properties of Alkaline Earth Metals

Physical Properties of Alkaline Earth Metals...

Chemical Properties of Alkaline Earth Metals

Reaction with hydrogen – (Formation of...

Minerals of Lithium

Minerals of Lithium Difficulties encountered...

Introduction of S and P Block Elements

INTRODUCTION The elements in the long form of the...

General Characteristic of Compounds of Alkali Metals

General characteristic of the compounds of the...

Some other Compounds of Alkali Metals

Bicarbonates of Metals (Na, K) Sodium Bicarbonate...

Properties of Magnesium

Properties of Magnesium Physical Properties (i)...

Sodium

Sodium Sodium is the 7 th most abundant element by...

Physical Characteristics of Alkaline Earth Metals

Melting and boiling points The alkaline earth...

Hydroxides of Alkali Metals

Hydroxides of Metals (Na, K) Sodium Hydroxide...

Carbonates of Alkali Metals

Carbonates of Metals (Na, K) Sodium Carbonate...

Chemical Properties of Alkali Metals

CHEMICAL PROPERTIES The alkali metals are highly...

Oxides of Alkali Metals

Oxides of Alkali Metal Oxides of Sodium: The...

Characteristics of Alkaline Earth Metal Compounds

General characteristics of compounds of the...

Hydroxides of Magnesium and Calcium

Hydroxides of Mg & Ca Magnesium Hydroxide...