A certain amount of matter limited in all directions and consequently having a finite size, shape and occupying some definite space is called a body.
A particle is defined as a portion of matter infinitesimally small in size so that for the purpose of investigation, the distance between its different parts may be neglected. Thus, a particle has only a definite position, but no dimension. In the problems we are going to discuss, we will consider a body to be a particle for the sake of simplicity.
MOTION IN ONE DIMENSION
The position of object can change on a straight line (like on x-axis with respect to origin) or on a plane with respect to some fixed point on frame. So we can define motion as follows:-
An object or a body is said to be in motion if its position continuously changes with time with reference to a fixed point (or fixed frame of reference).
Caution : The moving object is either a particle, a point object (such as an electron) or an object that moves like a particle. A body is said to be moving like if every portion of it moves in the same direction and at the same rate.
Motion in One Dimension
When the position of object changes on a straight line i.e. motion of object along straight line is called motion in one dimension.
To understand the essential concepts of one dimensional motion we have to go through some basic definitions.
Frame of reference
One can see the platform from a running train, and it seems that all the objects placed on platform are continuously changing their position. But one, who is on platform, concludes that the objects on the platform are at rest. It means if we will take the trains are reference frame the objects are not stationary and taking reference frame as platform the objects are stationary. So the study of motion is a combined property of the object under study and the observer. Hence there is a need to define a frame of reference under which we have to study the motion of an object.
A frame of reference is a set of coordinate axes which is fixed with respect to a space point (a body or an object can also be treated as a point mass therefore it can become a site for fixing a reference frame), which we have arbitrarily chosen as per our observer's requirement. The essential requirement for a frame of reference is that, it should be rigid.
Position of an object
The position of an object is defined with respect to some frame of reference. As a convention, we define position of a point (essentially we treat body as a point mass) with the help of three co-ordinates X, Y and Z. Hence X, Y, Z is a set of coordinate axes representing a 3-dimensional space and each point in this space can be uniquely defined with the help of a set of X, Y and Z coordinate, all three axes being mutually perpendicular to each other. The line drawn from origin to the point represents the position vector of that point.