Protective Colloids and Gold Number


Lyophobic sols such as those of metals (e.g. Au, Ag, Pt etc.) are not very stable in the sense that they get easily coagulated (precipitated) in the presence of an electrolyte. This poses a big problem in their storage and usage. Contrary to this, lyophilic sols are much more stable and do not get coagulated easily under similar conditions. 

It has been observed that in the presence of certain lyophilic colloids such as gum Arabic, gelatin, starch etc. the hydrophobic sols acquire greater stability towards coagulation, i.e. they get protected and do not get coagulated easily when an electrolyte is added. 

The process of protecting a lyophobic sol from being coagulated (precipitated) on addition of an electrolyte by the use of a lyophilic colloids is called protection and the lyophilic colloid used for purpose is called a protective colloid. 

For example, the addition of gelatin (a lyophilic colloid) to a gold sol (lyophobic sol) protects the latter from being coagulated on addition of sodium chloride solution. 

The exact mechanism of protection is not very clearly understood. However, it is believed that the lyophilic colloid particles get adsorbed on the surface of the colloid particles present in the lyophobic sol. The adsorbed lyophilic particles thus form an envelope around the lyophobic sol particles and protect them from the action of electrolytes. 

                                 protective-action-of-lyophillic-colloid-particles 
                             Protective action of lyophillic colloid particles


Gold Number: The protective power a lyophilic colloid is usually expressed in terms of a number called gold number introduced by Zsigmondy (1901). It may be defined as follows. 

The gold number of a protective colloid is its minimum amount in milligrams which is just sufficient to prevent the coagulation of 10 ml of a gold sol on the addition of 1 mL of 10% sodium chloride solution. 

It is to be noted that the smaller the value of gold number, the greater is the protective power of the protective colloid. The gold numbers of a few protective colloids are given in the Table below. 

                       Table: Gold Number of Some Protective Colloids 

        
Protective (Lyophilic) Colloid Gold Number
Gelatin 0.005-0.01
Casein 0.01-0.02
Haemoglobin 0.03-0.07
Egg albumin 0.08-0.10
Gum Arabic 0.10-0.15
Dextrin 6-20
Starch 20.25
 
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