View complete IIT JEE section
View complete NRI section
View complete study material
Buy IIT JEE/AIPMT study material
Buy CBSE Grade 8/9/10 study material
Examples of Hybridization
We have already discussed that whenever there are lone pairs they should be placed in equatorial positions. Now a question that may come to your mind that though the hybridization is sp3d, so the shape should be T.B.P. But when all the bonds are present the actual shape is TBP. But when instead of bond there are lone pairs in TBP the actual geometry is determined by the bonds not by the lone pairs. Here in ClF3 the bond present (2 in axial and 1 in equatorial) gives the impression of T shape.
8. PF5 Total valence electrons : 40
Requirement : 5σ bonds
Hybridization : sp3d
Shape : Trigonal bipyramidal (TBP)
9. XeF4 Total valence electrons : 36
Requirement:4σ bonds+ 2 lone pairs
Hybridisation : sp3d
Shape : Square planar
10. XeF2 Total valence electrons : 22
Requirements : 2σ bonds + 3 lone pairs
Shape : Linear
11. PF2Br3 Total valence electrons : 40
Requirements : 5σ bonds
Shape : trigonal bipyramidal
In this context it can also be noted that in T.B.P. shape the bond lengths are not same. The equatorial bonds are smaller than axial bonds. But in square bipyramidal shape, all bond lengths are same.
12. Total valence electrons : 32
Requirement : 4σbonds
Here all the structures drawn are resonating structures with O– resonating with double bonded oxygen.
13. NO2– Total valence electron: 18
Requirement : 2σ bonds + 1 lone pair
14. CO32– Total valence electrons: 24
Requirement = 3σ bonds
Hybrdisation = sp2
Shape: planar trigonal
But C has 4 valence electrons of these 3 form s bonds \ the rest will form a p bond.
In the structure one bond is a double bond and the other 2 are single. The position of the double bonds keeps changing in the figure. Since peripheral atoms are isovalent, so contribution of the resonanting structures are equal. Thus it is seen that none of the bonds are actually single or double. The actual state is
15. CO2 Total valence electrons:16
Requirement: 2σ bonds
O = C = O
16. Total valence electrons = 32
Requirement= 4σ bonds
17. Total valence electron = 26
Requirement = 3σ bond + 1 lone pair
18. XeO2F2 Total valence electrons : 34
Requirement: 4σ bonds +1 lone pairs
Shape: Distorted TBP (sea-saw geometry)
19. XeO3 Total valence electrons : 26
Requirement: 3σ bonds + 1 lone pair
20. XeOF4 Total valence electrons : 42
Requirement: 5σ bonds + 1 lone pair
Shape: square pyramidal.
HYDROGEN BONDING Introduction: An atom of hydrogen...
DIPOLE MOMENT Difference in polarities of bonds is...
Application of MOT to homonuclear diatomic...
ANSWER TO MISCELLANEOUS EXERCISES Exercise 1: The...
Rule for determination of total number of hybrid...
Energy Change During the Formation of Ionic Bond...
VALENCE SHELL ELECTRON PAIR REPULSION (VSEPR)...
Determination of Lattice Energy The direct...
Solved Examples Based on Hybridization Example 8:...
Effect of Hydrogen Bonding Hydrogen bonding has...
PERCENTAGE OF IONIC CHARACTER Every ionic compound...
CO-ORDINATE COVALENCY A covalent bond results from...
M.O. of Some Diatomic Heteronuclei Molecules The...
Solved Examples Example: Why the bond angle of H...
MISCELLANEOUS EXERCISES Exercise 1: Compare the...
HYBRIDIZATION The tetravalency shown by carbon is...
Maximum Covalency Elements which have vacant...
MOLECULAR ORBITAL THEORY In Molecular Orbital...
FACTORS GOVERNING POLARIZATION AND POLARISABILITY...
Origin of Intermolecular Forces: Intermolecular...
ELECTROVALENCY This type of valency involves...
INTRODUCTION A molecule is formed if it is more...
Importance of Hydrogen Bonding in Biological...
COVALENCY This type of valency involves sharing of...
Regular Geometry Molecules in which the central...
BOND CHARACTERISTICS 1. Bond Length: The distance...
Characteristics of ionic compounds : The following...
Calculation of Resultant Bond Moments Let AB and...
SOLVED PROBLEMS Board Type Questions Prob 2....
RESONANCE There may be many molecules and ions for...
Rules for Writing Resonating Structures Only...