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```				   sir,plz tell me the basic points of thermo nd which thing is most imp.
```

5 years ago

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### Answers : (1)

```										Dear student,
Thermodynamics:  The branch of science that         deals with the study of different forms of energy and the         quantitative relationships between them.
System:  Quantity of matter or a region of         space which is under consideration in the analysis of a         problem.
Surroundings:  Anything outside         the thermodynamic system is called the surroundings. The         system is separated from the surroundings by the         boundary. The boundary may be either fixed or moving.
Closed system:  There is no mass         transfer across the system boundary. Energy transfer may         be there.
Open system:  There may be both         matter and energy transfer across the boundary of the         system.
Isolated system:  There is neither         matter nor energy transfer across the boundary of the         system.
State of the system and state         variable:  The state of a system means the conditions         of the system. It is described in terms of certain         observable properties which are called the state         variables, for example, temperature (t), pressure (p),         and volume (v).
State function:  A physical quantity is a         state function in the change in its value during the         process depends only upon the initial state and final         state of the system and does not depend on the path by         which the change has been brought about.
Macroscopic system and its properties:  If as         system contains a large number of chemical species such         as atoms, ions, and molecules, it is called macroscopic         system. Extensive properties: These properties         depend upon the quantity of matter contained in the         system. Examples are; mass, volume, heat capacity,         internal energy, enthalpy, entropy, Gibb's free energy. Intensive         properties:  These properties depend only upon the amount         of the substance present in the system, for example,         temperature, refractive index, density, surface tension,         specific heat, freezing point, and boiling point.
Types of thermodynamic processes:  We say that a         thermodynamic process has occurred when the system         changes from one state (initial) to another state         (final).
Isothermal process:  When the         temperature of a system remains constant during a         process, we call it isothermal. Heat may flow in or out         of the system during an isothermal process.
Adiabatic process:  No heat can flow         from the system to the surroundings or vice versa.
Isochoric process:  It is a process         during which the volume of the system is kept constant.
Isobaric process:  It is a process         during which the pressure of the system is kept constant.
Reversible processes:  A process which is         carried out infinitesimally slowly so that all changes         occurring in the direct process can be exactly reversed         and the system remains almost in a state of equilibrium         with the surroundings at every stage of the process.

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5 years ago

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