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Salts

7 years ago

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Salts:


 


Salts are regarded as compounds made up of posi­tive and negative ions. The positive part comes from a base while negative part from an acid. Salts are ionic compounds. Salts may taste salty, sour, bitter, astringent or sweet or tasteless. Solutions of salts may be acidic, basic or neutral. Fused salts and aqueous solutions of salts conduct electricity and undergo electrolysis. The properties of salts in aqueous solutions are the properties of ions. The salts are generally crystalline solids.


 


The salts are classified into the following classes:


 


(i)      Simple salts:


 


The salt formed by the neutralization process, i.e., interaction between acid and base, is termed as

simple salt. These are of three types:


 


(a)     Normal salts:             The salts formed by the loss of all

possible protons (replaceable hydrogen atoms as H+) are called normal salts. Such a salt does not contain either a replaceable hydrogen or a hydroxyl group.


 


Examples are: NaCl, NaNO3, K2SO4, Ca3(PO4)2, Na3BO3, Na2HPO3 (one H atom is not replaceable as H3PO3 is a dibasic acid), NaH2PO2 (both H atoms are not replaceable as H3PO2 is a monobasic acid), etc.


 


(b)   Acid salts:       Salts formed by incomplete neutralization of poly-basic acids are called acid salts. Such salts still contain one or more replaceable hydrogen atoms. These salts when neutralised by bases form normal salts.


 


Examples are: NaHCO3, NaHSO4, NaH2PO4, Na2HPO4, etc.,


 


(c)   Basic salts:     Salts formed by incomplete neutralization of poly acidic bases are called basic salts. Such salts still contain one or more hydroxyl groups. These salts when neutralised by acids form normal salts.


 


Examples are: Zn(OH)Cl, Mg(OH)Cl, Fe(OH)2Cl, Bi(OH)2Cl, etc.


 


Double salts:


 


The addition compounds formed by the combination of two simple salts are termed double salts. Such

salts are stable in solid state only.


 


Examples are: Ferrous ammonium sulphate, FeS04-(NH4)2SO4.6H2O, Potash alum, K2SO4Al2(SO4)3.24H2O, and other alums.

7 years ago

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