MY CART (5)

Use Coupon: CART20 and get 20% off on all online Study Material

ITEM
DETAILS
MRP
DISCOUNT
FINAL PRICE
Total Price: R

There are no items in this cart.
Continue Shopping
Menu
Get instant 20% OFF on Online Material.
coupon code: MOB20 | View Course list

Get extra R 2,000 off
USE CODE: askschfd09

				   

plz explain the process of fission &fusion.

7 years ago

Share

Answers : (1)

										

Hi,


The Difference Between Nuclear Fission & Nuclear Fusion


There are two types of atomic explosions that can be facilitated by Uranium-235: fission and fusion. Fission, simply put, is a nuclear reaction in which an atomic nucleus splits into fragments, usually two fragments of comparable mass, emitting 100 million to several hundred million volts of energy. This energy is expelled explosively and violently in the atomic bomb. A fusion reaction is usually started with a fission reaction, but unlike the fission (atomic) bomb, the fusion (hydrogen) bomb derives its power from the fusing of nuclei of various hydrogen isotopes into helium nuclei. This article discusses the A-bomb or atomic bomb.


The massive power behind the reaction in an atomic bomb arises from the forces that hold the atom together. These forces are akin to, but not quite the same as, magnetism.


 


About Atoms


Atoms are comprised of various numbers and combinations of the three sub-atomic particles: protons, neutrons and electrons. Protons and neutrons cluster together to form the nucleus (central mass) of the atom while the electrons orbit the nucleus much like planets around a sun. It is the balance and arrangement of these particles that determine the stability of the atom.


 


Splitability


Most elements have very stable atoms which are impossible to split except by bombardment in particle accelerators. For all practical purposes, the only natural element whose atoms can be split easily is uranium, a heavy metal with the largest atom of all natural elements and an unusually high neutron-to-proton ratio. This higher ratio does not enhance its "splitability," but it does have an important bearing on its ability to facilitate an explosion, making uranium-235 an exceptional candidate for nuclear fission.


 


Uranium Isotopes


There are two naturally-occurring isotopes of uranium. Natural uranium consists mostly of isotope U-238, with 92 protons and 146 neutrons (92+146=238) per atom. Mixed with this is a 0.6% accumulation of U-235, with only 143 neutrons per atom. The atoms of this lighter isotope can be split, thus it is "fissionable" and useful in making atomic bombs. Neutron-heavy U-238 has a role to play in the atomic bomb as well since its neutron-heavy atoms can deflect stray neutrons, preventing an accidental chain reaction in a uranium bomb and keeping neutrons contained in a plutonium bomb. U-238 can also be "saturated" to produce plutonium (Pu-239), a man-made, radioactive element also used in atomic bombs.


Both isotopes of uranium are naturally radioactive; their bulky atoms disintegrating over time. Given enough time (hundreds of thousands of years) uranium will eventually lose so many particles that it will turn into lead. This process of decay can be greatly accelerated in what is known as a chain reaction. Instead of disintegrating naturally and slowly, the atoms are forcibly split by bombardment with neutrons.


 


Chain Reactions


A blow from a single neutron is enough to split the less-stable U-235 atom, creating atoms of smaller elements (often barium and krypton) and releasing heat and gamma radiation (the most powerful and lethal form of radioactivity). The chain reaction occurs when "spare" neutrons from this atom fly out with sufficient force to split other U-235 atoms they come in contact with. In theory, it is necessary to split only one U-235 atom, which will release neutrons which will split other atoms, which will release neutrons ... and so on. This progression is not arithmetic; it is geometric and takes place within a millionth of a second.


The minimum amount to start a chain reaction as described above is known as super critical mass. For pure U-235, it is 110 pounds (50 kilograms). No uranium is ever quite pure, however, so in reality more will be needed. U-235, U-238 and Plutonium.


 


About Plutonium


Uranium is not the only material used for making atomic bombs. Another material is the Pu-239 isotope of the man-made element plutonium. Plutonium is only found naturally in minute traces, so useable amounts must be produced from uranium. In a nuclear reactor, uranium's heavier U-238 isotope can be forced to acquire extra particles, eventually becoming the plutonium.


Plutonium will not start a fast chain reaction by itself, but this difficulty is overcome by having a neutron source, a highly radioactive material that gives off neutrons faster than the Plutonium itself. In certain types of bombs, a mixture of the elements Beryllium and Polonium is used to bring about this reaction. Only a small piece is needed (super critical mass is about 32 pounds, though as little as 22 can be used). The material is not fissionable in and of itself, but merely acts as a catalyst to the greater reaction.


 


Regards,


Rajat


Askiitian Expert

7 years ago

Post Your Answer

Other Related Questions on Organic Chemistry

I have op tandon for organic chemistry but my teacher says it`s not that good any idea what r must buy for organic? For problems I have himanshu pandey book
 
 
@ harsha yes ,o.p tandon is not at all required for organic chemistry , beacuse there are many concept which areabove the level of which jee advanced actually tests . so, for that reason...
 
Umakant biswal 3 months ago
 
frst of all gowith ncert , then solve all ques from himanshu pandey , if u are now at class 11 th then go with morrision and boyd , and if on class 12 th , then go with shortcuts for...
 
Umakant biswal 3 months ago
 
op tondon is not so good for jee main because its material has lot of time comsuming and it has a higher level book. you can do first ncrt problems then you take any other books for jee...
 
Sahabudin 18 days ago
What are analgesics and food preservatives.........?
 
 
Analgesics are drugs that reduce or totally abolish pain without causing disturbances of nervous system. There are two types of analgesics i. Narcotic analgesics E.g.: Morphine ii....
 
SAI SARDAR 5 months ago
 
Analgesis is defined as the drugs that reduce or abolish pain without causing impairment of conciousness,mental confusion,incoordinationor paralysis or some other disturbances of nervous...
 
somprasad 5 months ago
 
An analgesic or painkiller is any member of the group of drugs used to achieve analgesia , relief from pain. Analgesic drugs act in various ways on the peripheral and central nervous...
 
Umakant biswal 5 months ago
What are biodegradable and non-biodegradable detergents?
 
 
Biodegradable detergents: Cleansing agents or detergents which are decomposed by microbes are called biodegradable detergents. Their molecules have less branching. Non-biodegradable...
 
SAI SARDAR 5 months ago
 
1. Biodegradable Detergents are those detergents which can be degraded or decomposed by microorganisms present in water.such detergents have straight chain of hydrocarbons in the...
 
somprasad 5 months ago
 
1.Biodegradable dete rgents :Detergents having straight hydrocarbon chains are easily degraded(decomposed) by microorganisms .e.g.sodium lauryl sulphate. 2.Non-biodegradable detergents...
 
xavier 5 months ago
 
Detergents that can be degraded by bacteria are called biodegradable detergents . Such detergents have straight hydrocarbon chains. For example: sodium lauryl sulphate. Detergents that...
 
12 hours ago
the hybridization of phosphorus in PCl 5 (in solid state ) is 1)sp 3 2)sp 3 d 2 3)sp 3 d 4)both 1 and 2
 
 
@ krishna option no 3 turns out to be the correct option , here , the orbitals are filled by electrons of five cl atom . there are 5 p-cl sigma bond , three in one plane and make an angle...
 
Umakant biswal one month ago
 
i hope to no.3 because phosphours atom contain in last subshell is 5 electron and not contain a lone pair and here is 5 chlorine atom .then we add up eletron and we get a 10 and we devided...
 
sahabudin ali one month ago
 
I hope to option no 3.because it has 5 sigma bonds and no lone pairs of electrons,here,the orbital are filled by electrons of five cl atoms
 
Gavvala Ganesh one month ago
 
Sp3d. This is because hybridization depends on the lone pair of electrons on the central atom and the number of bonds it forms. P forms 5 bonds with no lone pair hence an sp3d hybridized....
 
4 days ago
When the speed of an electron increases, its specific charge
 
 
As per the theory of relativity, as the velocity of electron increases its mass also increases. As specific charge is inversely proportional to mass, as mass increases specific charge...
 
Amogh Dasture 4 months ago
 
@ mandeep we know that specific charges are e/m e/m is inversely proportional to the velocity of the electron ,, therefore as speed of the electron increases , the specific charges...
 
Umakant biswal 4 months ago
 
When the spped of an electron increases, its charge /mass ratio or specific charge decreases.................................................
 
Mudit 4 months ago
.Why li2CO3 decomposed at a lower temperature whereas Na2CO3 at higher temp?
 
 
The smaller the size of the ion, the higher the lattice energy and the greater the extent of the polarization. Li+ has a smaller size compared to Na+, hence polarizes the CO3- ion at a...
 
2017 years ago
View all Questions »

  • Complete JEE Main/Advanced Course and Test Series
  • OFFERED PRICE: R 15,000
  • View Details
Get extra R 15,000 off
USE CODE: askschfd09

Get extra R 2,000 off
USE CODE: askschfd09

More Questions On Organic Chemistry

Ask Experts

Have any Question? Ask Experts

Post Question

 
 
Answer ‘n’ Earn
Attractive Gift
Vouchers
To Win!!!
Click Here for details