MY CART (5)

Use Coupon: CART20 and get 20% off on all online Study Material

ITEM
DETAILS
MRP
DISCOUNT
FINAL PRICE
Total Price: R

There are no items in this cart.
Continue Shopping
Menu
Get instant 20% OFF on Online Material.
coupon code: MOB20 | View Course list

Get extra R 400 off
USE CODE: MOB20

				   


> Carboxylic acids and their derivatives


 


 


1) Decarboxylation reaction (WITH SODA-LIME OF b-keto carboxylic acid)


 


2) Arndt-Eistert rxn (mechanism, reference O.P Tendon-organic chemistry, rxn is for higher homologues of the acids)


 


3) Hunsdiecker rxn (bromo-becarboxylation, mechanisms)


 


4) rxn of acyl chloride with ammonia and amines(refer eg.benzoyl chloride + piperidine à N-Benzoylpiperidine)


 


5)Base hydrolysis of the ester (BAC2; when ethyl propanoate labeled with 18O in the ether type of oxygen of the ester is subjected to hydrolysis with aq.NaOH all of the 18O shows up in ethanol that is produced,none of the 18O appears in propanoate ions.why?; why here the attack at alkyl carbon not observed?)


 


6) In acid anhydrides,under heating effects of hydroxy acids,why b-hydroxy acid only forms a,b-unsaturated acid while other form(a,g,d) cyclic structures?


 


7) Why Clemmensen reduction is not used for compounds which have acid sensitive group, how to identify them?


   Similiarly, with Wolff-kishner reduction, we neglect base sensitive groups?


 


8) When to see for chair form or boat form of 6 membered ring & why is chair form less stable than boat form?


 


9) Please explain with mechanism of E1 reaction of alcohols, ethers; E2 reaction of alkyl halide. Some problem on ring expansion when to see for that? What are the necessary conditions for ring expansions? And why only E1 shows this effect while E2 doesn’t?


 


Ø    amines


 


 


10) Curtius rearrangements (mechanism with explanation)


11) Schmidt rxn (mechanism involved)


12) Lossen rearrangement {reference Morrison boyld} (base catalyzed mechanism; its mechanism)


13) Hinsberg rxn (explain with example in the chapter from module)


 


14) Dieckmanns’ condensation (mechanism with a suitable example)


5 years ago

Share

Answers : (1)

										

Dear student,


Acyl Group Substitution


This is probably the single most important reaction of carboxylic acid derivatives. The overall transformation is defined by the following equation, and may be classified either as nucleophilic substitution at an acyl group or as acylation of a nucleophile. For certain nucleophilic reagents the reaction may assume other names as well. If Nuc-H is water the reaction is often called hydrolysis, if Nuc–H is an alcohol the reaction is called alcoholysis, and for ammonia and amines it is called aminolysis.



Different carboxylic acid derivatives have very different reactivities, acyl chlorides and bromides being the most reactive and amides the least reactive, as noted in the following qualitatively ordered list. The change in reactivity is dramatic. In homogeneous solvent systems, reaction of acyl chlorides with water occurs rapidly, and does not require heating or catalysts. Amides, on the other hand, react with water only in the presence of strong acid or base catalysts and external heating.


Reactivity:   acyl halides > anhydrides >> esters ≈ acids >> amides


Because of these differences, the conversion of one type of acid derivative into another is generally restricted to those outlined in the following diagram. Methods for converting carboxylic acids into these derivatives were shown in a previous section, but the amide and anhydride preparations were not general and required strong heating. A better and more general anhydride synthesis can be achieved from acyl chlorides, and amides are easily made from any of the more reactive derivatives. Specific examples of these conversions will be displayed by clicking on the product formula. The carboxylic acids themselves are not an essential part of this diagram, although all the derivatives shown can be hydrolyzed to the carboxylic acid state (light blue formulas and reaction arrows). Base catalyzed hydrolysis produces carboxylate salts.






5 years ago

Post Your Answer

Other Related Questions on Organic Chemistry

Hi pl tell the best book for organic chemistry for iit preparation of jee mains and jee advanced......its urgent....
 
 
HEY ARYAN YOU CAN REFER TO OP TANDN ORGANIC CHEMISTRY. The latest trends of different competitive examinations have been integrated with the fundamental concepts in the book. Some of the...
 
SAHIL one month ago
 
HEY DEAR OK NO PROBLEM YOU CAN REFER LG WADE BOOK ALSO INSTEAD OF OP TANDON. ACTUALLY IF YOU READ LG WADE AND SOLOMONS, YOU WILL COME TO UNDERSTAND THAT IT IS BETTER TO READ FROM LG WADE....
 
SAHIL one month ago
 
SORRY DEAR WE CANNOT POST EXTERNAL LINKS AT THIS SITE. MOREOVER THE BOOK IS NOT WITH ME IN ANY FORMAT. OTHERWISE THE BOOK IS GOOD FOR GOC. ALL THE THINGS ARE WELL EXPLAINED. IT WILL SURELY...
 
SAHIL 29 days ago
Cannizaro reaction is not given by Chloral HCHO 2-methylpropanal p-methoxybenzaldehydeThe answers are 1,2I have doubt in 3,4. Generally aldehydes without alphe hydrogen give cannizaro...
 
 
Here all the 4 compounds (HCHO, chloral,2 methyl propanal nd p-methoxybenzaldehyde will give cannizzaro reaction. In 2 methyl propansl,though alpha hydrogen is absent it will give cannizzaro...
 
2017 years ago
 
chloral would not undergo cannizaro rxn., it will give haloform rxn which is similar to Cannizaro reaction but not Cannizaro. When acetaldehyde is treated withCl 2 /NaOH for Haloform rxn....
 
4 days ago
What are biodegradable and non-biodegradable detergents?
 
 
Biodegradable detergents: Cleansing agents or detergents which are decomposed by microbes are called biodegradable detergents. Their molecules have less branching. Non-biodegradable...
 
SAI SARDAR 6 months ago
 
1. Biodegradable Detergents are those detergents which can be degraded or decomposed by microorganisms present in water.such detergents have straight chain of hydrocarbons in the...
 
somprasad 6 months ago
 
1.Biodegradable dete rgents :Detergents having straight hydrocarbon chains are easily degraded(decomposed) by microorganisms .e.g.sodium lauryl sulphate. 2.Non-biodegradable detergents...
 
xavier 6 months ago
the hybridization of phosphorus in PCl 5 (in solid state ) is 1)sp 3 2)sp 3 d 2 3)sp 3 d 4)both 1 and 2
 
 
sp3d is the right answer. In excited state, intermixing of a 3s, three 3p and one 3d orbitals gives five half filled sp 3 d hybrid orbitals, which are arranged in trigonal bipyramidal...
 
dolly bhatia one month ago
 
@ krishna option no 3 turns out to be the correct option , here , the orbitals are filled by electrons of five cl atom . there are 5 p-cl sigma bond , three in one plane and make an angle of...
 
Umakant biswal 3 months ago
 
i hope to no.3 because phosphours atom contain in last subshell is 5 electron and not contain a lone pair and here is 5 chlorine atom .then we add up eletron and we get a 10 and we devided...
 
sahabudin ali 2 months ago
 
It should be option 4 as PCl5 exists in [PCl4]+ and [PCl6]- in solid state....as in first case it is Sp3 and that in second it is Sp3d2
 
6 days ago
sir iam a iiit students in RAGIV GANDHI UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGIES, there is a semister it infront of me in 10 days.i don’t know any thing about chemistry.it is a ncert syllubus.please send...
 
 
@ badugu they are ncert books topic , i am mentioning some imp chapter name below 1- COORDINATION COMPOUND ( PART 2 CHEMI ) 2- GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF ORGANIC CHEMISTRY ( 11TH 2ND PART ) 3-...
 
Umakant biswal one month ago
 
Dear Vijay, Go through these topics first as atmost importat ones: Aldehyde and Ketones Biomolecules Alcohols and ethers Coordination Compounds Solid states Electrrochemistry Solutions D and...
 
Vikas TU one month ago
 
@ badugu , kindly be specific in asking the ques , earlier u told that u have ncert syllabus , and i have given the chapters from ncert textbooks only . kindly conform which publication u...
 
Umakant biswal one month ago
How many unpaired electrons are present in superoxide ion?
 
 
But the answer is 3.. As in molecular orbital theory the unpaired electrons in oxygen molecule is 2.. It accepts 1 electron to form superoxide ion.. That electron instead of pairing with 2...
 
Suraj Singh 18 days ago
 
And now I am agree with my solution.. You should check it once.... .. And thanq for the concern... .....
 
Suraj Singh 18 days ago
 
It`s unfortunately wrong..................................... ................. NOť less than 100 char
 
Suraj Singh 18 days ago
View all Questions »

  • Complete JEE Main/Advanced Course and Test Series
  • OFFERED PRICE: R 15,000
  • View Details
Get extra R 3,000 off
USE CODE: MOB20

Get extra R 400 off
USE CODE: MOB20

More Questions On Organic Chemistry

Ask Experts

Have any Question? Ask Experts

Post Question

 
 
Answer ‘n’ Earn
Attractive Gift
Vouchers
To Win!!!
Click Here for details