please explain geometrical isomerisam in in alkenes with diagram for easily understandig

3 years ago

Share

Answers : (1)

                                        

Dear student,


Geometrical isomerism is a kind of stereoisomerism. The isomerism due to the difference in spatial arrangements of groups about the doubly bonded carbon atoms is known as Geometrical Isomerism.


For e.g., consider the structure of 2-butene.


Space Models


Space Models of 2-Butenes

 


fig.12.1 - Space Models of 2-Butenes


Note that the atoms are arranged in two different ways in I and II. The two CH3 groups lie on the same side in I and on the opposite sides in II. When two similar atoms or groups lie on the same side, the isomerism is called cis isomerism and the isomers are called cis isomers (cis means "on same side" in Latin). When two similar atoms or groups lie on opposite sides, the isomerism is called trans isomerism and the isomers are called trans isomers (trans means "across" in Latin). Geometrical isomerism is also called Cis-trans isomerism.


The carbon-carbon double bond in 2-butene consists of one sigma bond and one pie bond. The pie bond is formed by the lateral overlapping of p orbitals that lie above and below the sigma orbital plane. To pass from the cis form to the trans form, the molecule must be twisted so that the p orbitals don't overlap any more and the pie bond is broken. To break this pie bond, around 167.2KJ of energy is required. Therefore the conversion from one geometric isomer to another is very rare in 2-butene.


 


Hindered rotation about the carbon carbon double bond

 


fig.12.2 - Hindered rotation about the carbon carbon double bond


Similarly, maleic and fumaric acids exhibit geometric isomerism or they are geometric isomers.


maleic acid and fumaric acid are geometric isomers
3 years ago

Post Your Answer

More Questions On Organic Chemistry

Ask Experts

Have any Question? Ask Experts
Post Question
 
Answer ‘n’ Earn
Attractive Gift
Vouchers
To Win!!!
Click Here for details
is sbh3 boiling point higher than nh3
 
 
Ammonia (NH3) has a higher boiling point than stibine (SbH3) since ammonia can form weak hydrogen bonds. Hydrogen bonding explains why water, a very small molecule, can have a boiling point...
 
Shivam 18 days ago
what product is formed when adipic acid is heated?
 
 
Adipic acid is hexane-1,6-dioic acid (CH 2 ) 4 (COOH) 2 .On heating adipic acid we will get its anhydride (CH 2 ) 4 (CO) 2 O.As per rule COOH groups are attatched to different C-atoms so...
  img
Aarti Gupta 14 days ago
what is mean by a indicator in titration?
 
 
Titration is the process of determining the volumes of reagents(or solutions),required for the just completion of a reaction.The point at which the reaction is just completed is called the...
  img
Aarti Gupta 4 months ago
 
While performing a titration, we slowly add one solution of a known concentration to another known volume but without knowing concentration. This process of adding titrant to another...
  img
Vasantha Kumari 4 months ago
 
Indicator is a substance that changes the color of a solution in order to detect the presence of certain ions in it. It can also be used to indicate the presence of completion of a reaction...
  img
Ruchi Shaw 4 months ago
what is le chatelier's principle??? Explain in brief..
 
 
A statement of Le Chatelier's Principle If a dynamic equilibrium is disturbed by changing the conditions, the position of equilibrium moves to counteract the change. Using Le...
  img
Sunil Kumar FP 17 days ago
Chemical bonding
 
 
A chemical bond is an attraction between atoms that allows the formation of chemical substances that contain two or more atoms. The bond is caused by the electrostatic force of attraction...
  img
ruchi yadav 5 months ago
 
A chemical bond is an attraction between atoms that allows the formation of chemical substances that contain two or more atoms. Thank You Ruchi Askiitians Faculty
  img
ruchi yadav 6 months ago
 
Dear Shiv Where is the question? All the best. AKASH GOYAL AskiitiansExpert-IITD Please feel free to post as many doubts on our discussion forum as you can. We are all IITians and here to...
 
AKASH GOYAL AskiitiansExpert-IITD 3 years ago
sir, I get confused in solving the problems in physical chemistry.can u please suggest a way to over come this
 
 
if you are getting confusion in solving problem then try physical chemistry solved problem from p bahadur.after practising this much problem you will not be having any problem to solve...
  img
Sunil Kumar FP one month ago
View all Questions »