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can you give material about modulation,demodulation, amplitude modulation,EM wave propagation. and also question and answers. because my semester exams come very nearly

6 years ago


Answers : (1)


Dear student,

Amplitude Modulation (AM)

Amplitude Modulation occurs when a voice signal's varying voltage is applied to a carrier frequency. The carrier frequency's amplitude changes in accordance with the modulated voice signal, while the carrier's frequency does not change.

When combined the resultant AM signal consists of the carrier frequency, plus UPPER and LOWER sidebands. This is known as Double Sideband - Amplitude Modulation (DSB-AM), or more commonly referred to as plain AM.

The carrier frequency may be suppressed or transmitted at a relatively low level. This requires that the carrier frequency be generated, or otherwise derived, at the receiving site for demultiplexing. This type of transmission is known as Double Sideband - Suppressed Carrier (DSB-SC).

It is also possible to transmit a SINGLE sideband for a slight sacrifice in low frequency response (it is difficult to suppress the carrier and the unwanted sideband, without some low frequency filtering as well). The advantage is a reduction in analog bandwidth needed to transmit the signal. This type of modulation, known as Single Sideband - Suppressed Carrier (SSB-SC), is ideal for Frequency Division Multiplexing (FDM).

Another type of analog modulation is known as Vestigial Sideband. Vestigial Sideband modulation is a lot like Single Sideband, except that the carrier frequency is preserved and one of the sidebands is eliminated through filtering. Analog bandwidth requirements are a little more than Single Sideband however.

Vestigial Sideband transmission is usually found in television broadcasting. Such broadcast channels require 6 MHz of ANALOG bandwidth, in which an Amplitude Modulated PICTURE carrier is transmitted along with a Frequency Modulated SOUND carrier.

Frequency Modulation (FM)

Frequency Modulation occurs when a carrier's CENTER frequency is changed based upon the input signal's amplitude. Unlike Amplitude Modulation, the carrier signal's amplitude is UNCHANGED. This makes FM modulation more immune to noise than AM and improves the overall signal-to-noise ratio of the communications system. Power output is also constant, differing from the varying AM power output.

The amount of analog bandwidth necessary to transmit a FM signal is greater than the amount necessary for AM, a limiting constraint for some systems.

Phase Modulation

Phase Modulation is similar to Frequency Modulation. Instead of the frequency of the carrier wave changing, the PHASE of the carrier changes.

As you might imagine, this type of modulation is easily adaptable to data modulation applications.


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Sagar Singh

B.Tech, IIT Delhi

6 years ago

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