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Overall magnetic behavior of a material can vary widely, depending on the structure of the material, and particularly on its electron configuration .


Several forms of magnetic behavior have been observed in different materials!!


PLZ EXPLAIN ALL THE FORMS...

7 years ago

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Several forms of magnetic behavior have been observed in different materials, including:


* Diamagnetism:


Diamagnetism is a very weak form of magnetism that is only exhibited in the presence of an external magnetic field. It is the result of changes in the orbital motion of electrons due to the external magnetic field. The induced magnetic moment is very small and in a direction opposite to that of the applied field. When placed between the poles of a strong electromagnet, diamagnetic materials are attracted towards regions where the magnetic field is weak. Diamagnetism is found in all materials, however because it is so weak it can only be observed in materials that do not exhibit other forms of magnetism. 


* Paramagnetism:


Paramagnetism refers to the tendency of the atomic magnetic dipoles, due to quantum-mechanical spin , in a material that is otherwise non-magnetic to align with an external magnetic field. This alignment of the atomic dipoles with the magnetic field tends to strengthen it, and is described by a relative magnetic permeability greater than unity (or, equivalently, a small positive magnetic susceptibility). 


    # Molecular magnet: Molecular magnets are systems where a permanent magnetization and magnetic hysteresis can be achieved (although usually at extremely low temperatures) not through a three-dimensional magnetic ordering, but as a purely one-molecule phenomenon.                                                                                                                                           


The requisites for such a system are:


   * a high spin ground state

    * a high zero-field-splitting (due to high magnetic anisotropy)


* Ferromagnetism


Ferromagnetism is a phenomenon by which a material can exhibit a spontaneous magnetization, and is one of the strongest forms of magnetism. It is responsible for most of the magnetic behavior encountered in everyday life, and is the basis for all permanent magnets (as well as the metals that are attracted to them). Some examples of ferromagnetic materials are iron, cobalt, nickel, and gadolinium. 

   


     # Antiferromagnetism :  In materials that exhibit antiferromagnetism, the spins of magnetic electrons align in a regular pattern with neighboring spins pointing in opposite directions. This is the opposite of ferromagnetism. Generally, antiferromagnetic materials exhibit antiferromagnetism at a low temperature, and become disordered above a certain temperature; the transition temperature is called the Neel temperature. Above the Neel temperature, the material is typically paramagnetic.                                           


      # Ferrimagnetism :  In physics, a ferrimagnetic material is one in which the magnetic moment of the atoms on different sublattices oppose as in antiferromagnet but the opposing momentum are unequal and a spontaneous magnetization remains. 


      # Metamagnetism :  Metamagnetism is a blanket term used loosely in physics to describe a sudden (often, dramatic) increase in the magnetization of a material with a small change in an externally applied magnetic field.


* Spin glass


  A spin glass is a material exhibiting high magnetic frustration. Its magnetic structure is disordered even at low temperatures.The origin of the behavior can be either a disordered structure (such as that of a conventional, chemical glass) or a disordered mangetic doping in an otherwise regular structure. 


* Superparamagnetism


 Superparamagnetism is a phenomenon by which magnetic materials may exhibit a behavior similar to paramagnetism at temperatures below the Curie or the Neel temperature.

7 years ago

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