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Please explain the P - block elements in detail?

7 years ago

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P - Block Elements


The p-block of the periodic table elements consists of the elements of the group-13, group-14, group-15, grup-16, group-17 and group-18 excluding the helium. The group-13 is also called as Boron group. Similarly, group-14 as Carbon group, group-15 as Nitrogen Group, group-16 as Chalcogens, group-17 as Halogens and group-18 as Noble gases. These p-block elements are distinguished by the property that in the atomic ground state, the highest energy electron is a p-orbital.


Group 13 of the periodic table consists of the elements boron (B), aluminium (Al), gallium (Ga), indium (In) and thallium (Tl). Except boron, which is classified as a non-metal, all other elements of this group are metals. Carbon (C), silicon (Si), germanium (Ge), tin (Sn) and lead (Pb) constitute the group 14 of the periodic table also known as carbon family. Group 15 elements are namely nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), arsenic (As) antimony (Sb) and bismuth (Bi). Oxygen (O), sulphur(S), Selenium (Se), Tellurium (Tl) and Polonium (Po) constitute the group 16 elements. Group 17 contains the elements Fluorine (F), Chlorine (Cl), Bromine (Br), Iodine (I) and Astatine (At). The elements helium (He), neon (Ne), argon (Ar), krypton (Kr), xenon (Xe) and radon (Rn) are in Group 18.


Diagonal Relationship is also exhibited here in-between Beryllium (Be) and Aluminium (Al), Boron (B) and Silicon (Si).  So these pairs have similar chemical properties as seen previously in Lithium and Magnesium. The p-block contains several elements of great social and economic importance as well as chemical interest. Examples include the use of aluminium as a structural material, the importance of silicon and germanium as semiconductors, and the use of sulphur, phosphorus and nitrogen in fertilizers.


The p-block elements show a variety of oxidation state both positive and negative. As we go down the group, two electrons present in the valence `s' orbital become inert and the electrons in the `p' orbital are involved in chemical combination. This is known as `inert pair effect'.

Let us look at these p-block elements by individually looking at each group starting from group 13 to group 18. In each group we look at the common properties similarities variation and all other stuff. The main issues or topics which we’ll see in each group are So the general view is like :



Group 13 (Boron family)


 



  • Physical characteristics of that group elements

  • Trends in chemical reactivity of that group elements

  • Properties and uses of certain elements.


 




Group 14 (Carbon family)


 



  • Physical characteristics of that group elements

  • Trends in chemical reactivity of that group elements

  • Properties and uses of certain elements


 


 


Group 15 (Nitrogen family)


 



  • Physical characteristics of that group elements

  • Trends in chemical reactivity of that group elements

  • Properties and uses of certain elements


 




Group 16 (Chalcogens)


 



  • Physical characteristics of that group elements

  • Trends in chemical reactivity of that group elements

  • Properties and uses of certain elements


 


Group 17 (Halogens)


 



  • Physical characteristics of that group elements

  • Trends in chemical reactivity of that group elements

  • Properties and uses of certain elements


 




Group 18 (Noble gases)


 



  • Physical characteristics of that group elements

  • Trends in chemical reactivity of that group elements

  • Properties and uses of certain elements


 


 


 


 


7 years ago

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