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				   Sreening effect


5 years ago

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										Dear student,
The screening effect, or shielding effect, is how electrons in the same  atom interact with each other. In a single-electron atom (in isolation),  the electron is only interacting with the proton; in a multielectron  atom, the electrons are both interacting with the proton(s), but also  with each other. While electrons are attracted to the protons in the  nucleus, they are repelled by the other electrons. This  electron-electron repulsion decreases the attractive force of the  protons on the electrons.  The shielding effect changes the  effective nuclear charge -- effectively decreasing the true nuclear  charge. This effect causes atoms to get smaller as you across a period  (row) of the periodic table, as well as many other periodic trends  observed in the periodic table.

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Sagar Singh
B.Tech, IIT Delhi


5 years ago
										In solids, especially in metals and semiconductors, the electrostatic screening of screening effect reduces the electrostatic field and Coulomb potential of an ion inside the solid. Like the electric field of the nucleus is reduced inside an atom or ion due to the shielding effect,  the electric fields of ions in conducting solids are further reduced by  the cloud of conduction electrons. The screened Coulomb potential is  expressed as
$V(r) = \frac{Z e}{r} e^{-q r}$
where Z is the atomic number, e is the elementary unit charge, r is the distance to the nucleus of the embedded ion and q is a screening parameter that determines the range of the potential. The screening parameter q plays an important role in theoretical models in solid-state physics  The screened electrostatic potential, like the Yukawa potential, has a simple Fourier transform, expressed as
$V(k) = \frac{4 \pi Z e}{q^2 + k^2}$
The screened potential determines the inter atomic force and the phonon dispersion relation in metals. The screened potential is used to calculate the electronic band structure of a large variety of materials, often in combination with pseudopotential models,

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5 years ago

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