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Aviral Anurag Tripathi Grade: 12
        

madam/sir,


                  i have read about plasma matter being the fourth state of matter in one of my chemistry books, but no further explaination on this topic is given.i would be glad enough if you could give me some information on this matter, and its existence.


solid ,liquid and gas are integral parts of our lifes but thinking of a new matter which is not so common if very interesting.


Is there any other such state of matter i.e other than solid ,liquid ,gas and constant, if yes please let me know about that also.


Aviral


Askiitian

7 years ago

Answers : (1)

AskiitianExpert Pramod-IIT-R
47 Points
										In science class we generally are taught that there are three states of matter; Solid, Liquid, and Gas. This definition is not only incomplete and outdated but it ignores the most abundant state of matter in the universe, Plasma.

Plasma is the stuff of stars, and it holds the key to unlimited, safe, and renewable energy. This paper will describe what plasma is and why it is important to the past, present, and the future.
As stated earlier plasma is the most abundant form of matter in the universe, it is the stuff of stars. A majority of the matter in inner-stellar space is plasma. All the stars that shine are all plasma. Plasma is a highenergy electrically charged mixture of ions and electrons. While plasma is the most abundant phase of matter in the universe, on earth it only occurs in a few limited places. Plasma appears on earth only in places like lightning bolts, flames, auroras, and fluorescent lights.
Natural plasma exist only at very high temperatures, or low temperature vacuums. Artifical plasma can be created by using electrical charges on gas, this is seen in neon signs. Plasma at low temperatures is hard to maintain because outside a vacuum low temperature plasma reacts rapidly with any molecules it encounters. This is what makes this material, both very useful and hard to use!
Natural plasmas on the other hand do not breakdown or react rapidly, but are extremely hot (over 20,000 degrees celsius minimum)and their energy is so high that they vaporize any material they touch.
Currently scientists are working on putting plasma to effective use. Ideally, to be useful, plasma would have to be low energy and somehow survive without instantly reacting and degenerating. The approach currently being advanced to solve the plasma problem is the application of magnetic fields. The magnetic fields create low energy plasma that creates molecules that are in what scientist call a metastable state. The magnetic fields used to create the low temperature plasma give the plasma molecules electrons which do not react until they collide with another molecule with just the right energy. This enables these metastable molecules to survive long enough to react with a designated molecule such as a particular chemical contaminate.
The fact that these metastable particles are selective in their reactivity, makes them a potentially unique solution to problems likeradioactive contamination. Scientist are currently experimenting with mixtures of gases to work as metastable agents on plutonium and uranium, and this is just the beginning.
While plasma problem has not been solved entirely, it show a promise that can't be overlooked. As a clean-up agent plasma could work on anything from graffitti covered walls to radioactive waste. Yet that is not all, The sun, like all stars, is a massive plasma bind. The plasma of the Sun is a result of a nuclear fusion reaction that is controlled by gravity and magnetic fields.

Pramod Kumar
IIT Alumni
7 years ago
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