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what is state management in web application?why it is required ? give me list of state managemenet objects?

7 years ago


Answers : (2)


View state, control state, hidden fields, cookies, and query strings all involve storing data on the client in various ways. However, application state, session state, and profile properties all store data in memory on the server. Each option has distinct advantages and disadvantages, depending on the scenario.

Client-Based State Management Options

The following sections describe options for state management that involve storing information either in the page or on the client computer. For these options, no information is maintained on the server between round trips.

View State

The ViewState property provides a dictionary object for retaining values between multiple requests for the same page. This is the default method that the page uses to preserve page and control property values between round trips.

When the page is processed, the current state of the page and controls is hashed into a string and saved in the page as a hidden field, or multiple hidden fields if the amount of data stored in the ViewState property exceeds the specified value in the MaxPageStateFieldLength property. When the page is posted back to the server, the page parses the view-state string at page initialization and restores property information in the page.

You can store values in view state as well. The following example shows how to store a value in the view state.

Control State

Sometimes you need to store control-state data in order for a control to work properly. For example, if you have written a custom control that has different tabs that show different information, in order for that control to work as expected, the control needs to know which tab is selected between round trips. The ViewState property can be used for this purpose, but view state can be turned off at a page level by developers, effectively breaking your control. To solve this, the ASP.NET page framework exposes a feature in ASP.NET called control state.

Hidden Fields

ASP.NET allows you to store information in a HiddenField control, which renders as a standard HTML hidden field. A hidden field does not render visibly in the browser, but you can set its properties just as you can with a standard control. When a page is submitted to the server, the content of a hidden field is sent in the HTTP form collection along with the values of other controls. A hidden field acts as a repository for any page-specific information that you want to store directly in the page.


A cookie is a small amount of data that is stored either in a text file on the client file system or in-memory in the client browser session. It contains site-specific information that the server sends to the client along with page output. Cookies can be temporary (with specific expiration times and dates) or persistent.

You can use cookies to store information about a particular client, session, or application. The cookies are saved on the client device, and when the browser requests a page, the client sends the information in the cookie along with the request information. The server can read the cookie and extract its value. A typical use is to store a token (perhaps encrypted) indicating that the user has already been authenticated in your application.

Query Strings

Query strings provide a simple but limited way to maintain state information. For example, they are an easy way to pass information from one page to another, such as passing a product number from one page to another page where it will be processed. However, some browsers and client devices impose a 2083-character limit on the length of the URL.

Server-Based State Management Options

ASP.NET offers you a variety of ways to maintain state information on the server, rather than persisting information on the client. With server-based state management, you can decrease the amount of information sent to the client in order to preserve state, however it can use costly resources on the server. The following sections describe three server-based state management features: application state, session state, and profile properties.

Application State

ASP.NET allows you to save values using application state — which is an instance of the HttpApplicationState class — for each active Web application. Application state is a global storage mechanism that is accessible from all pages in the Web application. Thus, application state is useful for storing information that needs to be maintained between server round trips and between requests for pages. For more information, see ASP.NET Application State Overview.

Application state is stored in a key/value dictionary that is created during each request to a specific URL. You can add your application-specific information to this structure to store it between page requests.

Session State

ASP.NET allows you to save values by using session state — which is an instance of the HttpSessionState class — for each active Web-application session.

Session state is similar to application state, except that it is scoped to the current browser session. If different users are using your application, each user session will have a different session state. In addition, if a user leaves your application and then returns later, the second user session will have a different session state from the first.

You can use session state to accomplish the following tasks:

Uniquely identify browser or client-device requests and map them to an individual session instance on the server.

Store session-specific data on the server for use across multiple browser or client-device requests within the same session.

Raise appropriate session management events. In addition, you can write application code leveraging these events.

7 years ago

A new instance of the Web page class is created each time the page is posted to the server. In traditional Web programming, this would typically mean that all information associated with the page and the controls on the page would be lost with each round trip. For example, if a user enters information into a text box, that information would be lost in the round trip from the browser or client device to the server.

To overcome this inherent limitation of traditional Web programming, ASP.NET includes several options that help you preserve data on both a per-page basis and an application-wide basis. These features are as follows:

View state

Control state

Hidden fields


Query strings

Application state

Session state

Profile Properties

7 years ago

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