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umesh kumar singh Grade: 12
        

important subtopics of chemistry for aieee 2010

7 years ago

Answers : (1)

AskiitianExpert Pramod-IIT-R
47 Points
										SOME BASIC CONCEPTS IN CHEMISTRY

Matter and its nature, Dalton’s atomic theory; Concept of atom, molecule, element and compound; Physical quantities and their measurements in Chemistry, precision and accuracy, significant figures, S.I. Units, dimensional analysis; Laws of chemical combination; Atomic and molecular masses, mole concept, molar mass, percentage composition, empirical and molecular formulae; Chemical equations and stoichiometry.

UNIT : STATES OF MATTER
Classification of matter into solid, liquid and gaseous states.
Gaseous State:
Dalton’s law of partial pressure; Kinetic theory of gases (only postulates); Concept of average, root mean square and most probable velocities; Real gases, deviation from Ideal behaviour, compressibility factor, van der Waals equation, liquefaction of gases, critical constants.

UNIT : CHEMICAL BONDING AND MOLECULAR STRUCTURE
Kossel - Fajan’s rule, dipole moment; Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion (VSEPR) theory and shapes of simple molecules.
Hydrogen bonding and its applications.

DGo (Standard Gibbs energy change) and equilibrium constant.

UNIT : SOLUTIONS
Different methods for expressing concentration of solution - molality, molarity, mole fraction, percentage (by volume and mass both), vapour pressure of solutions and Raoult’s Law - Ideal and non-ideal solutions, vapour pressure - composition, plots for ideal and non-ideal solutions; Colligative properties of dilute solutions - relative lowering of vapour pressure, depression of freezing point, elevation of boiling point and osmotic pressure; Determination of molecular mass using colligative properties; Abnormal value of molar mass, van’t Hoff factor and its significance.
UNIT: EQUILIBRIUM
equilibrium constants (Kp and Kc) and their significance, significance of DG and DGo in chemical equilibria, factors affecting equilibrium concentration, pressure, temperature, effect of catalyst; Le Chatelier’s principle.
Ionic equilibrium: Weak and strong electrolytes, ionization of electrolytes,

factors affecting the rate of reactions: concentration, temperature, pressure nd suspensions, classification of colloids - lyophilic, lyophobic; multi molecular, macromolecular and associated colloids (micelles), preparation and properties of colloids - Tyndall effect, Brownian movement, electrophoresis, dialysis, coagulation and flocculation; Emulsions and their characteristics.


Organic Chemistry


UNIT : HYDROCARBONS
isomerism, IUPAC nomenclature,

Alkanes - Conformations: Sawhorse and Newman projections (of ethane); Mechanism of halogenation of alkanes.
Alkenes - Mechanism of electrophilic addition: addition of hydrogen, halogens, water, hydrogen halides (Markownikoff’s and peroxide effect); Ozonolysis, oxidation, and polymerization.
Alkynes - Acidic character; Addition of hydrogen, halogens, water and hydrogen halides; Polymerization.

Nature of C-X bond; Mechanisms of substitution reactions.

UNIT : ORGANIC COMPOUNDS CONTAINING OXYGEN
Alcohols: Identification of primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols; mechanism of dehydration.
Phenols: Acidic nature, electrophilic substitution reactions: halogenation, nitration and sulphonation, Reimer - Tiemann reaction.
Ethers: Structure.
Aldehyde and Ketones: Nature of carbonyl group;
Nucleophilic addition to >C=O group, relative reactivities of aldehydes and ketones; Important reactions such as - Nucleophilic addition reactions (addition of HCN, NH3 and its derivatives), Grignard reagent; oxidation; reduction (Wolff Kishner and Clemmensen); acidity of ? - hydrogen, aldol condensation, Cannizzaro reaction, Haloform reaction; Chemical tests to distinguish between aldehydes and Ketones.
CARBOXYLIC ACIDS
Acidic strength and factors
UNIT :

UNIT : PRINCIPLES RELATED TO PRACTICAL CHEMISTRY
• Detection of extra elements (N,S, halogens) in organic compounds; Detection of the following functional groups: hydroxyl (alcoholic and phenolic), carbonyl (aldehyde and ketone), carboxyl and amino groups in organic compounds.
• Chemistry involved in the preparation of the following:
Inorganic compounds: Mohr’s salt, potash alum.
Organic compounds: Acetanilide, p-nitroacetanilide, aniline yellow, iodoform.
• Chemistry involved in the titrimetric excercises - Acids bases and the use of indicators, oxalic-acid vs KMnO4, Mohr’s salt vs KMnO4.
• Chemical principles involved in the qualitative salt analysis:

Cations - Pb2+ , Cu2+, AI3+, Fe3+, Zn2+, Ni2+, Ca2+, Ba2+, Mg2+, NH4+.
Anions- CO32-, S2-, SO42-, NO2-, NO3-, CI-, Br, I. (Insoluble salts excluded).
• Chemical principles involved in the following experiments:

Enthalpy of neutralization of strong acid and strong base. .

Kinetic study of reaction of iodide ion with hydrogen peroxide at room temperature.
7 years ago
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