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The Le–Chatelier’s Principle

When a chemical reaction at equilibrium is subjected to any stress, then the equilibrium shifts in that direction in which the effect of the stress is  reduced.

Effect of Addition of Inert Gases

  • Addition of inert gas at constant volume: No effect on equilibrium.

  • Addition of inert gas at constant pressure: Equilibrium shifts in a direction where there is increase in number of moles of gases.

Effect of Change in Temperature

  • In a system at equilibrium, both exothermic and endothermic reactions take place simultaneously.

  • Increase in temperature would shift the equilibrium in the direction of endothermic reaction.

  • Decrease in temperature would shift the equilibrium in the direction of exothermic reaction.

Effect of Change in Concentration

  • When the concentration of reactants increased, equilibrium shifts in forward direction.

  • When the concentration of the products is increases, equilibrium shifts in backward direction.

Effect of Change in Pressure

  • Increase in pressure shifts the equilibrium in the direction of lesser number of gaseous molecules.

  • Decrease in pressure shifts the equilibrium in the direction of larger number of gaseous molecules.

Effect of Catalyst

Catalyst does not change the equilibrium.

 

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