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  • Structural Organisation in Plants and Animals
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Morphology of Flowering Plants

Morphology is the branch of science which deals with the study of form, structure and relative position of different organs.

Flowering plants or angiosperms are characterised by the enclosure of the ovules or potential seeds within a hollow ovary.

Angiosperms are classified into monocots and dicots.

Plant Morphology or phytomorphology refers to the study of external form and structure of plants.

The flowering plant consists of an axis, root system and shoots system.

Root System: - The flowering plants consist of a long cylindrical axis which is differentiated into an underground root system.

Root is the descending, non green, underground part lacking nodes, internodes, leaves and buds.

Root is responsible for nutrition and support.

Roots are of two types: tap root and adventitious root.

Shoot System: - It is an aerial system, usually above the soil and originates from the plumule. It consists of stem, branches, leaves, flowers and fruits.

1) Stem: - It facilitates conduction of water, mineral and food material. The flowers, fruits and seeds form the reproductive parts of the plants.

Modification of stems:

a) Tuber                   b) Bulb                     c) Runner

d) Sucker                 e) Stolon                  f) Offset

g) Stem thorn         h) Phylloclades     i) Cladodes

2) Leaf: - Leaf is a green dorsoventrally flattened exogenous lateral outgrowth that arises from a node of the stem or a branch. The leaf is a specialised organ of photosynthesis, transpiration and gaseous exchange.

Parts of Leaf:

a) Leaf base             b) Stipules

c) Petiole                  d) Lamina

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