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  • Structural Organisation in Plants and Animals
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PLANT ANATOMY

It is the branch of botany which deals with study of internal structures and organization of plants.

N. Grew known as father of plant anatomy.

K.A. Chaudhary known as father of Indian plant anatomy.

Kinds of Plant Tissues:-

(i) Meristematic tissue               (ii) Permanent tissue

Meristematic Tissue: -

Cells in the meristematic tissue are capable of dividing. Hence, the main function of meristematic tissue is mitosis. The cells of the meristematic tissue are small and thin-walled. 
There are three types of meristems:  

1) Apical Meristems

2) Intercalary Meristems

3) Lateral Meristems

Permanent Tissues:-

These are of 2 types: -

(i) Simple tissue    (ii) Complex tissue 

(A) Simple tissues are of 3 types: -

Parenchyma: -

                                                 

Parenchyma is commonest, simplest, unspecialized, most primitive, most abundant permanent tissue. The cells of parenchyma are large, thin-walled. They usually have a large central vacuole.

Sclerenchyma: -

                                       

Sclerenchyma are dead, mechanical tissue and act as skeleton in plants.

Collenchyma: -

                                     

Collenchyma cells are living mechanical tissue, found beneath the epidermis of herbaceous dicot stem.

(B) Complex Tissues

Complex tissues are of 2 types: -

(i) Xylem      (ii) Phloem

                                             

Xylem is responsible for conduction of water and minerals from the roots to the top of plants.

Phloem transports food materials, usually from leaves to other parts of the plants.

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